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Table 1 Included Study Characteristics

From: The effect of diabetes self-management education on HbA1c and quality of life in African-Americans: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Citation Sample
(N)
African-American
(%)
Female
(%)
Mean
Age
Design Intervention Characteristics: (Duration, Contact Hours, Group vs. Individual, Provider Type) Control Attrition Rate Cultural Tailoring? HbA1c, QOL Measures
Agurs-Collins et al., 1997 [29] 66 100 77 62 RCT 12 weekly group sessions (60 mins nutrition, 30 mins exercise) and 1 individual diet counseling session over first 3 months; 6 bi-weekly sessions over next 3 months.
Providers: Registered dietician and exercise physiologist
1 class within 3 weeks of enrollment (glycemic control); 2 nutritional mailings at 3 and 6 months 15% Yes HbA1c: 3×’s: screening/randomization, 3 month visit, 6 month visit; QOL: N/A
Amoako et al., 2008 [42] 68 100 100 61 RCT 4 weeks of phone interventions (1 x per week, from 10 to 60 min) that included 4 phases: Warm-up, assessment of problems, uncertainty appraisal, discussion of strategies to manage uncertainty.
Provider: nurse practitioner
Usual care -regular primary care and specialist visits; support group meetings; diabetes management classes 7.35% No HbA1c: No specific measurements mentioned, QOL: 2×’s: baseline, 6 weeks post baseline; (Tools: Michel Uncertainty in Illness Scale; Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey).
Anderson et al., 2005 [30] 239 100 82 61 RCT 6 weekly 2 h group sessions; then option for monthly support group, or receive a monthly phone call.
Provider: diabetes educator
Wait-listed usual care, no description given. 6.41% Yes HbA1c: 4×’s:screening, after 6 week intervention and 6 week control period, 6 months post treatment, 1 year post treatment;QOL: 2×’s: baseline, 6 weeks; (Tool: Diabetes Empowerment Scale Short-Form (DESSF)).
Anderson-Loftin et al., 2005 [31] 97 100 76.5 49 RCT 4 weekly classes in low fat dietary strategies; 5 monthly peer-group discussions, and weekly phone follow up.
Provider: diabetes educator
Referral to a local 8 h traditional diabetes class 34.02% Yes HbA1c: 2×’s: baseline, 6 months post treatment; QOL: N/A
Bray et al., 2013 [32] 727 100 64.5 60 RCT Each patient seen 4 times over a 12 month period by the nurse, pharmacist, or dietician care manager for 30 to 60 min; follow-up with case manager every 3 to 6 mos for 2 ys.
Providers: nurse, pharmacist and diabetes educator
One 15 min office visit to a physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant for labs; frequent diabetes educational handouts received. 7.02% Yes HbA1c: 3×’s: baseline, 18 months, 36 months, QOL: N/A
Carter et al., 2011 [33] 47 100 63.8 51 RCT Telehealth nurse visits: bi-weekly, 30 min video conferencing; DSME modules with social networking to share coping strategies, ask questions.
Provider: nurse educator
Usual care from providers 63% No HbA1c: 2×’s: baseline, conclusion of 9 month study
QOL: 2×’s: baseline, conclusion of 9 month study;(Tool: not specified)
Gaillard et al., 2015 [34] 96 100 70 60 RCT Didactic lectures at 1–2 week intervals for 6 months; individual one-on-one counseling; trained community health worker support via weekly phone calls and community resources; quarterly point of care physiological testing.
Providers: Diabetes educators, registered dietitian, diabetologists,and community health worker
Usual care -anthropometric and metabolic measurements at quarterly intervals 21% Yes HbA1c: 3×’s: baseline, 3 months, 6 months
QOL: 2×’s: baseline, 6 months; (Tools: Questionnaire diabetic quality of life, 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12), diabetes attitude).
Gary et al., 2004 [35] 186 100 76 59 RCT 4 arms: A) usual care; B) usual care + nurse case manager (45 min face-to-face or phone); C) usual care + community health worker (45–60 min face-to-face or phone); D) usual care + nurse case manager + community health worker (3 visits with each educator per year).
Providers: nurse care manager, community health worker
Ongoing care from patient’s own health care provider, quarterly newsletter 16% Yes HbA1c: 2×’s: baseline; 2 yr. follow up
QOL: N/A
Keyserling et al., 2002 [36] 200 100 100 59 RCT 3 arms: (Group A) clinic and community-based center; (Group B) clinic only; (Group C) minimal intervention. Groups A and B received 4 monthly visits with a nutritionist at clinic. In addition, Group A received 3 group sessions at community based center and 12 monthly peer phone calls..
Providers: physical activity leader, peer counselor
Received mailed pamphlets 15% Yes HbA1c: 3×’s: baseline, 6 months, 12 months
QOL: 3×’s: baseline, 6 months, 12 months; (Tools: Mental Well-Being, Social Well-Being).
Peña-Purcell et al., 2015 [37] 103 100 79.5 63 QE 6 week group educational sessions.
Providers: Trained registered nurse, registered dietitian, or a certified diabetes educator
Original study design: Wait-listed control group; due to lack of participants in control group, pre/post design utilized with intervention group. 44% Yes HbA1c: 2×’s: baseline, 12 weeks (3 mos);
QOL: 2×’s: baseline, 5 weeks; (Tools: Psychological Distress Scale; Healthy Days Measure Scale).
Ruggiero et al., 2014 [38] 266 52.6 68.8 53 RCT 12 months medical assistant coaching for DSME; quarterly in-person contact at regular clinic visits, monthly follow-up phone calls.
Providers: medical assistants
Treatment as usual: regular visits with primary care, referrals for specialty care, basic DSME education, diabetes pamphlet 21.6% Yes HbA1c: 3×’s: baseline; 6 mos; 12 mos;
QOL: N/A
Samuel-Hodge et al., 2009 [39] 201 100 64% 59 RCT Church-based DSME: 1 individual counseling visit;12 bi-weekly group sessions; 12 monthly phone contacts; 3 encouragement postcards.
Providers: peer counselor, dietician, other health care providers
Minimal care: direct mailings of 2 pamphlets, and 3 bimonthly newsletters to controls 13.7% Yes HbA1c: 3×’s: baseline, 8 mos, 12 mos;
QOL: N/A
Skelly et al., 2005 [40] 41 100 100 62 RCT 4 bi-weekly home visits lasting approximately 1 h; 4 Diabetes Symptom-Focused Management Intervention modules.
Provider: nurse
2 pre-intervention visits; 1 phone call; 1 final evaluation visit. 8.5% Yes HbA1c: 2×’s: baseline, within 1 month of treatment completion
QOL: 2×’s: baseline, final evaluation; (Tools: Diabetes Symptom Distress Scale (DSDS), Quality of Life in Diabetes Instrument).
Walker et al., 2010 [41] 195 100 80.35% 60 QE Three 2-h DSME sessions with inclusion of healthy snacks.
Providers: diabetes educators
Usual care Not specified Yes HbA1c: 2×’s: baseline, 5 months later
QOL: 2 - 3×’s; (Tools: Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey -baseline, after completion of 3 sessions, 5 months later).