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Table 2 Differences in Growth in Out of Pocket Costs Between Country Groupings

From: Revisiting out-of-pocket requirements: trends in spending, financial access barriers, and policy in ten high-income countries

  Predicted Mean Percent Change in OOP/Capita 1994–2004 vs. 2004–2014 p-value
Group 1 - Historically low OOP costs with higher recent growth 3.63 reference group
Group 2 - Historically moderate OOP costs with lower recent growth −3.00 < 0.001
Group 3 - Historically high OOP costs with low to no recent growth −3.56 < 0.001