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Table 2 Adjusted effects on performance indicators based on EMR of 5130 LBP patient contacts in all participating general practices

From: Effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy compared to usual care on low back pain guideline adherence among general practitioners

  Implementation group (n = 2677 LBP patient-GP contacts) [n = 1354 individual patients]   Usual care group (n = 2453 LBP patient-GP contacts) [n = 1195 individual patients)  
Indicator Baseline (n = 1426 contacts) [n = 683 patients] Number (%) Follow-up (n = 1251 contacts) [n = 671 patients] Number (%) Baseline (n = 1211 contacts) [n = 580 patients] Number (%) Follow-up (n = 1242 contacts) [n = 615 patients] Number (%)
Total referrals to specialists 1 171 (12) 100 (8) 109 (9) 99 (8)
Referrals to neurology 1 ± 100 (7) 50 (4) 48 (4) 50 (4)
Referrals to orthopaedics 2 0 0 12 (1) 0
Referrals to other specialities (e.g. Pain management, Rehabilitation medicine, Rheumatology) 29 (2) 38 (3) 36 (3) 37 (3)
Total imaging requests 1 200 (14) 138 (11) 145 (12) 137 (11)
MRI requests 43 (3) 25 (2) 24 (2) 25 (2)
X-ray requests 3 114 (8) 75 (6) 73 (6) 75 (6)
Other imaging requests (CT, Dexa, Ultrasound) * 4 (0.3) 9 (0.7) 6 (0.5) 4 (0.3)
Consideration of psychosocial risk factors 57 (4) 50 (4) 48 (4) 50 (4)
Referral for psychosocial care 5 (0.4) 5 (0.4) 4 (0.3) 4 (0.3)
Consideration of occupational risk factors 71 (5) 63 (5) 73 (6) 62 (5)
Referral to and/or contact with occupational physician 5 (0.4) 5 (0.4) 9 (0.7) 9 (0.7)
  1. Numbers refer to 5130 patient-contacts belonging to 2549 unique LBP patients i.e. multiple contacts of the same patient over time were counted separately. 1: Adjusted for average years of experience in general practice; 2: Adjusted for number of patients aged 65+ years in GPs’ practices; 3: Adjusted for average age of GPs; * No time x group interaction estimate due to low number of events; ± p = 0.008