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Table 2 Adjusted service use means (95% confidence intervals) across 24 months by intervention and housing stability

From: The effects of housing stability on service use among homeless adults with mental illness in a randomized controlled trial of housing first

Service Use Domain Housing First Standard Care
Sustained Housing Instability
(n = 82–87)
Late Housing Instability
(n = 87–89)
Sustained Housing Stability
(n = 712–732)
Late Housing Stability
(n = 72–78)
Sustained Housing Instability
(n = 299–312)
Late Housing Instability
(n = 32–34)
Sustained Housing Stability
(n = 153–158)
Late Housing Stability
(n = 155–160)
Emergency department (visits/6 months)
 Baseline 2.30 (1.51, 3.09) 3.55 (2.78, 4.33) 1.92 (1.66, 2.19) 1.92 (1.08, 2.76) 1.71 (1.30, 2.12) 2.68 (1.44, 3.91) 2.05 (1.47, 2.63) 2.11 (1.54, 2.69)
 Year 1 0.61 (− 0.18, 1.40) 2.03 (1.27, 2.80) 1.05 (0.78, 1.31) 1.08 (0.26, 1.90) 1.33 (0.91, 1.75) 1.32 (0.06, 2.57) 1.11 (0.53, 1.68) 1.97 (1.39, 2.54)
 Year 2 0.59 (− 0.20, 1.38) 1.50 (0.73, 2.27) 0.83 (0.56, 1.10) 0.74 (− 0.07, 1.56) 1.14 (0.73, 1.55) 1.10 (−0.13, 2.34) 0.83 (0.25, 1.41) 1.04 (0.47, 1.62)
Hospital stays, medical (days/3 months)
 Baseline 0.13 (− 0.83, 1.08) 0.37 (− 0.58, 1.32) 0.94 (0.61, 1.27) 0 (−1.01, 1.01) 0.54 (0.04, 1.05) 0 (−1.53, 1.53) 0.50 (−0.21, 1.21) 1.51 (0.81, 2.22)
 Year 1 0.17 (−0.79, 1.13) 0.33 (−0.62, 1.28) 0.32 (− 0.01, 0.65) 1.12 (0.11, 2.13) 0.68 (0.17, 1.18) 0.04 (− 1.50, 1.57) 0.25 (− 0.46, 0.96) 0.46 (− 0.25, 1.17)
 Year 2 0.49 (− 0.46, 1.45) 0.55 (− 0.40, 1.49) 0.53 (0.20, 0.86) 0.51 (− 0.50, 1.52) 1.09 (0.58, 1.59) 0.15 (− 1.38, 1.69) 0.49 (− 0.22, 1.20) 0.44 (− 0.27, 1.15)
Hospital stays, psychiatric (days/3 months)
 Baseline 1.28 (− 0.98, 3.53) 1.78 (− 0.45, 4.00) 4.22 (3.44, 4.99) 4.92 (2.55, 7.30) 2.67 (1.48, 3.86) 2.00 (− 1.60, 5.60) 3.95 (2.28, 5.60) 3.80 (2.14, 5.46)
 Year 1 2.98 (0.73, 5.23) 2.01 (−0.22, 4.24) 1.54 (0.77, 2.32) 5.16 (2.78, 7.54) 3.30 (2.11, 4.49) 0.39 (−3.20, 3.99) 0.84 (−0.83, 2.51) 3.00 (1.34, 4.66)
 Year 2 4.56 (2.31, 6.82) 3.11 (0.88, 5.34) 0.92 (0.14, 1.69) 2.24 (−0.14, 4.62) 2.97 (1.79, 4.16) 0.53 (−3.07, 4.13) 0.54 (−1.13, 2.21) 1.31 (−0.35, 2.97)
Outpatient hospital services (visits/6 months)
 Baseline 0.57 (−0.42, 1.56) 1.15 (0.17, 2.13) 1.54 (1.20, 1.88) 0.46 (−0.62, 1.54) 0.87 (0.35, 1.40) 1.28 (−0.34, 2.90) 1.44 (0.70, 2.18) 1.35 (0.62, 2.09)
 Year 1 0.40 (−0.60, 1.41) 0.33 (−0.65, 1.30) 0.86 (0.52, 1.20) 0.41 (−0.64, 1.46) 0.97 (0.44, 1.50) 0.42 (−1.17, 2.02) 2.37 (1.64, 3.10) 1.01 (0.28, 1.75)
 Year 2 0.42 (−0.59, 1.42) 0.17 (−0.81, 1.15) 0.59 (0.25, 0.94) 0.56 (−0.48, 1.60) 0.83 (0.31, 1.35) 3.41 (1.84, 4.99) 1.56 (0.82, 2.30) 0.95 (0.22, 1.68)
Specialized crisis services (calls and visits/6 months)
 Baseline 2.00 (0.51, 3.49) 1.29 (−0.16, 2.75) 1.36 (0.85, 1.87) 0.97 (−0.61, 2.56) 0.77 (−0.01, 1.56) 1.59 (− 0.77, 3.94) 1.68 (0.58, 2.79) 1.19 (0.09, 2.29)
 Year 1 0.39 (−1.12, 1.90) 1.13 (−0.33, 2.58) 0.75 (0.25, 1.26) 0.91 (−0.66, 2.47) 0.52 (−0.27, 1.32) 0.62 (−1.77, 3.01) 1.61 (0.52, 2.70) 0.85 (−0.25, 1.95)
 Year 2 0.46 (−1.03, 1.96) 0.48 (−0.99, 1.94) 1.45 (0.94, 1.96) 0.62 (−0.93, 2.18) 0.66 (−0.12, 1.44) 0.43 (−1.93, 2.78) 0.93 (− 0.18, 2.03) 1.53 (0.44, 2.62)
Drop-in centers (visits/6 months)
 Baseline 75.30 (55.64, 94.96) 71.78 (52.45, 91.10) 68.26 (61.51, 75.00) 86.77 65.72, 107.83) 86.82 (76.40, 97.24) 45.39 (13.66, 77.13) 63.34 (48.74, 77.94) 84.59 (70.18, 99.00)
 Year 1 62.63 (42.62, 82.64) 63.92 (44.59, 83.24) 47.59 (40.85, 54.33) 54.96 (34.18, 75.73) 88.65 (78.10, 99.19) 54.24 (22.51, 85.98) 36.87 (22.37, 51.38) 71.72 (57.08, 86.36)
 Year 2 70.43 (50.54, 90.32) 73.70 (54.27, 93.13) 40.88 (34.08, 47.69) 53.22 (32.58, 73.86) 68.47 (58.14, 78.81) 54.13 (22.87, 85.40) 29.07 (14.42, 43.71) 58.79 (44.29, 73.30)
Homeless shelters (days/3 months)
 Baseline 32.31 (27.02, 37.59) 24.78 (19.55, 30.00) 32.17 (30.35, 33.99) 33.23 (27.65, 38.80) 31.13 (28.34, 33.91) 32.72 (24.28, 41.17) 34.91 (30.99, 38.83) 31.39 (27.50, 35.29)
 Year 1 18.68 (13.40, 23.97) 5.55 (0.33, 10.77) 5.31 (3.49, 7.13) 16.56 (10.98, 22.14) 23.63 (20.84, 26.42) 12.05 (3.61, 20.50) 10.12 (6.20, 14.04) 22.93 (19.04, 26.83)
 Year 2 14.31 (9.02, 19.59) 6.46 (1.24, 11.68) 0.85 (−0.98, 2.67) 3.61 (−1.97, 9.19) 16.92 (14.13, 19.71) 9.61 (1.16, 18.06) 0.82 (−3.10, 4.74) 6.01 (2.11, 9.90)
Food banks (visits/6 months)
 Baseline 1.29 (0.28, 2.30) 1.82 (0.82, 2.82) 1.95 (1.60, 2.29) 1.49 (0.41, 2.56) 1.97 (1.44, 2.51) 0.74 (−0.87, 2.34) 2.29 (1.54, 3.03) 1.41 (0.67, 2.15)
 Year 1 0.85 (−0.18, 1.88) 2.16 (1.17, 3.15) 3.32 (2.97, 3.66) 1.21 (0.15, 2.28) 1.70 (1.15, 2.24) 1.86 (0.23, 3.49) 2.83 (2.08, 3.57) 2.08 (1.33, 2.83)
 Year 2 0.85 (−0.18, 1.87) 1.55 (0.55, 2.55) 3.14 (2.79, 3.49) 2.64 (1.58, 3.70) 1.58 (1.05, 2.11) 2.82 (1.22, 4.43) 2.54 (1.79, 3.29) 2.84 (2.10, 3.59)
Prison (days/3 months)
 Baseline 9.00 (6.51, 11.49) 4.15 (1.69, 6.60) 1.42 (0.56, 2.28) 6.50 (3.87, 9.13) 4.19 (2.88, 5.51) 3.09 (−0.89, 7.07) 1.63 (− 0.22, 3.47) 1.19 (− 0.64, 3.03)
 Year 1 17.78 (15.29, 20.26) 2.08 (−0.38, 4.54) 0.79 (− 0.06, 1.65) 8.83 (6.21, 11.46) 5.32 (4.01, 6.63) 0.70 (−3.28, 4.68) 0.77 (−1.07, 2.62) 0.64 (−1.19, 2.48)
 Year 2 22.72 (20.24, 25.21) 12.25 (9.79, 14.71) 0.82 (−0.04, 1.67) 3.18 (0.55, 5.81) 6.89 (5.58, 8.21) 4.71 (0.74, 8.69) 0.40 (−1.44, 2.25) 0.45 (−1.38, 2.28)