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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by intervention and housing stability

From: The effects of housing stability on service use among homeless adults with mental illness in a randomized controlled trial of housing first

Characteristic Full Sample* (N = 1581–1650) Housing First Standard Care
Sustained Housing Instability
(n = 85–87)
Late Housing Instability
(n = 84–89)
Sustained Housing Stability
(n = 708–732)
Late Housing Stability
(n = 71–78)
Sustained Housing Instability
(n = 296–312)
Late Housing Instability
(n = 32–34)
Sustained Housing Stability
(n = 153–158)
Late Housing Stability
(n = 152–160)
Age 41.03 (11.06) 38.07 (11.87) 39.53 (11.12) 41.49 (11.01) 39.34 (9.96) 41.63 (11.13) 39.18 (9.81) 41.51 (11.58) 40.94 (10.69)
Gender, male 1127 (68.3%) 65 (74.7%) 72 (80.9%) 479 (65.4%) 52 (66.7%) 226 (72.4%) 25 (73.5%) 103 (65.2%) 105 (65.6%)
Canadian-born 1334 (80.8%) 72 (82.8%) 77 (86.5%) 584 (79.8%) 66 (84.6%) 255 (81.7%) 28 (82.4%) 125 (79.1%) 127 (79.4%)
Lifetime length of homelessness (months) 61.60 (70.56) 84.55 (85.81) 80.45 (95.26) 55.74 (65.33) 68.74 (71.83) 64.98 (69.80) 66.85 (73.64) 55.60 (71.51) 60.52 (63.97)
Military veteran 70 (4.3%) 4 (4.7%) 3 (3.4%) 35 (4.8%) 4 (5.1%) 14 (4.5%) 2 (5.9%) 5 (3.2%) 3 (1.9%)
MCAS total 59.70 (8.65) 57.60 (8.80) 58.62 (8.33) 60.13 (8.69) 58.18 (9.79) 58.61 (8.72) 59.32 (9.02) 61.82 (7.93) 60.32 (7.93)
GAIN-SPS total (past month) 1.84 (1.94) 2.08 (2.07) 2.42 (2.06) 1.71 (1.91) 1.97 (2.07) 2.07 (1.96) 2.09 (2.02) 1.53 (1.85) 1.68 (1.82)
Chronic medical conditions 4.69 (3.43) 3.95 (3.18) 5.51 (3.63) 4.70 (3.42) 4.01 (3.32) 4.63 (3.45) 5.03 (4.00) 4.50 (3.23) 5.16 (3.49)
Current psychiatric diagnosis
 Major depressive episode 839 (50.8%) 40 (46.0%) 49 (55.1%) 381 (52.0%) 35 (44.9%) 142 (45.5%) 19 (55.9%) 83 (52.5%) 90 (56.3%)
 Mania or hypomania episode 221 (13.4%) 9 (10.3%) 14 (15.7%) 104 (14.2%) 6 (7.7%) 47 (15.1%) 4 (11.8%) 20 (12.7%) 17 (10.6%)
 Posttraumatic stress disorder 476 (28.9%) 21 (24.1%) 37 (41.6%) 216 (29.5%) 13 (16.7%) 82 (26.4%) 11 (32.4%) 50 (31.6%) 46 (28.8%)
 Panic disorder 375 (22.7%) 11 (12.6%) 24 (27.0%) 171 (23.4%) 12 (15.4%) 81 (26.0%) 8 (23.5%) 31 (19.6%) 37 (23.1%)
 Mood disorder, psychotic features 276 (16.7%) 13 (14.9%) 11 (12.4%) 123 (16.8%) 10 (12.8%) 55 (17.7%) 4 (11.8%) 32 (20.3%) 28 (17.5%)
 Psychotic disorder 599 (36.3%) 38 (43.7%) 23 (25.8%) 254 (34.7%) 35 (44.9%) 127 (40.7%) 11 (32.4%) 54 (34.2%) 57 (35.6%)
 Alcohol abuse/dependence 740 (44.8%) 41 (47.1%) 57 (64.0%) 311 (42.5%) 33 (42.3%) 151 (48.4%) 12 (35.3%) 63 (39.9%) 72 (45.0%)
 Drug abuse/dependence 884 (53.6%) 50 (57.5%) 56 (62.9%) 371 (50.7%) 44 (56.4%) 174 (55.8%) 24 (70.6%) 78 (49.4%) 87 (54.4%)
Long-stay psychiatric hospitalization (≥6 months) in past 5 years 109 (6.7%) 9 (10.8%) 5 (5.7%) 53 (7.3%) 6 (7.8%) 14 (4.5%) 1 (3.0%) 11 (7.1%) 10 (6.3%)
Two or more psychiatric hospitalizations in past 5 years 602 (37.2%) 18 (21.2%) 26 (29.2%) 272 (37.9%) 30 (40.0%) 113 (37.0%) 12 (36.4%) 60 (38.2%) 71 (44.9%)
Support model
 ACT 342 (34.7%) 34 (39.1%) 33 (37.1%) 246 (33.6%) 29 (37.2%)
 ICM 560 (56.8%) 50 (57.4%) 52 (58.4%) 417 (57.0%) 41 (52.6%)
 Congregate, supportive housing 84 (8.5%) 3 (3.4%) 4 (44.9%) 69 (9.4%) 8 (10.3%)
  1. ACT Assertive Community Treatment, ICM Intensive Case Management, MCAS Multnomah Community Ability Scale, GAIN-SPS Global Appraisal of Individual Needs–Substance Problem Scale
  2. *Full sample for support model includes only Housing First participants (N = 986)
  3. Notes. Higher scores on the MCAS reflect greater functioning. Higher scores on the GAIN-SPS reflect greater severity of substance problems