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Table 1 Definition of the variables included in the analyses

From: Using overbooking to manage no-shows in an Italian healthcare center

Variable Description
No-show Missing a scheduled appointment without canceling it. When a patient cancelled his reservation, in fact, this was removed just from the dependent variable because a cancelled appointment could not be classified as a no-show because the slot was made available for another patient.
Insurance status In Italy, the majority of the examinations is covered by the NHS, but there is a portion that is privately paid by patients
 • NHS: Examination covered by the NHS
 • Private: Examination paid directly by the patient or by a private insurance
Rate of previous cancellations Number of cancellations divided by number of reservations in previous examinations of the booked patient since 2012 in any ward
Rate of previous no-shows Number of no-show divided by number of reservations in previous examinations of the booked patient since 2012 in any ward
Booking confirmation An automated phone service calls patients aged over 65 2 days before the appointment to get a confirmation
 • Not Confirmed: if the patient did not confirm the appointment
 • Confirmed: if the patient confirmed the appointment
Type of booking Method of reservation used by patients
 • Phone: reservation by phone with the assistance of an operator
 • Web: reservation through the institutional website (active since April 2014)
Time of the day MR and CT wards had an opening time ranging from 6 AM to 2 AM (+1d); all remaining wards had opening time 8 AM - 8 PM. Accordingly, we considered the following time of the day:
 • 6 AM–8 AM: for MR and CT wards only
 • 8 AM-1 PM: for all wards
 • 1 PM–8 PM: for all wards
 • 8 PM-2 AM (+1d): for MR and CT wards only
Long weekend It indicated whether the day of the appointment fell in a week with a public holiday
 • Yes: week with a public holiday
 • No: week without a public holiday
Weather forecast An automated system downloads every day from the web ( the weather forecasts of the same and of the following 3 days
 • Clear: day without rain or storm
 • Rain: day with rain
 • Storm: day with a storm
Text message reminder service Two days before the examination, an automated service sends a text message to all patients aged between 18 and 65 (active since April 2014)
 • Not yet activated: examinations booked before April 2014
 • Activated but not sent: examinations booked since April 2014 without sending a text message reminder because the system did not know the patient mobile phone number or because he/she was over 65
 • Sent: examination booked after April 2014 with text message reminder sent
No NHS coverage period In Italy, the NHS covers most of the examinations until a cap on the NHS budget was reached, causing a stop in the coverage. This happened, usually, in the last weeks of the year
 • No: examination booked in the coverage period
 • Yes: examination booked when there was no NHS insurance because the budget was spent in full
Price of the examination Price paid by the patient. It was set to zero for the examinations covered by NHS and to the whole price otherwise
Waiting list Number of days between the booking and the examination
Time allowed Expected duration of the examination
Hourly revenue The revenues of all examinations divided by the product between the number of working hours and the number of active MR scanners
Waiting time Difference between the time when the patient starts his/her examination and the latest between the scheduled time of the appointment and the arrival time at the healthcare center
Idle time Idle time of the scanners across the appointments
Overtime Staff overtime at the end of the day