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Table 1 Summary of Literature Review Findings by Level of Engagement

From: Heard and valued: the development of a model to meaningfully engage marginalized populations in health services planning

Category of Engagement (IAP2) Purpose of Engaging Engagement Participants Engagement Strategies References
Consult ▪ Identify system-level healthcare gaps and barriers experienced by participants
▪ Collect participants’ ideas for improving services/policies
▪ Inform development of evaluation, collect evaluation data
▪ Users of various healthcare system from diverse backgrounds
▪ Users of specific community-based services
▪ 1-day in-person events
▪ Participants shared health experiences with each other through various discussion formats (e.g. world café, interpersonal conversations, writing and drawing on poster boards)
▪ Solicited ideas by asking what the system is currently like, and how it should ideally be
▪ Participants shared ideas about how healthcare could be made better
[15, 18, 19, 32, 42]
Involve ▪ Create methods to collect concerns/ideas of specific populations about a health service/policy
▪ Inform decision makers about specific communities’ values, preferences, and needs regarding broader system-level issues
▪ Inform management at facility about their patients’ values/preferences/needs
▪ Communities previously excluded or oppressed by healthcare structures, from a variety of backgrounds
▪ People whose voices were historically ignored
▪ Patients participated in the development of communication structures through focus groups and surveys
▪ Engaged community groups to learn about facilitating the patients
▪ Created informational material to enhance participants understanding of the issues
▪ Ongoing dialogue through various formats to identify concerns/hopes, and inform decision makers
[20, 23, 28, 29]
Collaborate ▪ Advise on planning of an initiative for a specific population
▪ Advise health authority how to improve services for a particular population
▪ A diverse range of participants, including members of the population targeted by the initiative, and people who were personally or professionally interested in the issue ▪ Created an advisory panel or committee
▪ Participants attended regular meetings
▪ Provided opportunities for participants to learn about the issue
▪ Participants provided information, advice and feedback about the initiative. Through the process the facilitators responded to this input, creating a cycle of feedback and response over time
[22, 24,25,26,27, 30]
Empower ▪ Plan and implement a community health promotion initiative ▪ Diverse range of participants, including members of the population targeted by the initiative, and people who were personally or professionally interested. ▪ Created a partnership with the participants
▪ Supported partners to plan activities and evaluation criteria of the project
▪ Provided learning opportunities for participants