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Table 1 Coding frame

From: Community mobilization and maternal Care of Women Living with HIV in poor settings: the case of Mfuwe, Zambia

Community mobilization component Global theme Organizing theme Basic theme
identified in the FGDs
Peer Support Peer-support as a maternal health-enabler Supported promoted dialogue Dialogue helped challenge and re-evaluate inaccurate stereotypes and harmful clichés
Dialogue enabled sharing information regarding best practices during maternal care
Dialogue gave rise to empathy and availability of strong friendship ties with people in similar situation
Provided of support to peers Peer support promoted emotional, psychological, physical and economic support among HIV positive women during maternity
Promoted treatment-adherence Peer support encouraged regular and consistent uptake of ARVs before and after birth
Peer support served as a continuous reminder for uptake of ARVs
Fostered alliances Peer support allows for the formation of alliances among peers to advocate for an end to sexual cleansing
Working together to fight stigma and discrimination through advocacy and other means
Fighting patriarchy and promoting women empowerment
Peer support as a maternal-health inhibitor Re-enforced superstition regarding institutional-delivery Peers reinforced the negative superstition regarding health facilities e.g. Clinics practice witchcraft and infant deaths for ritual purposes etc.
Reinforced a sense of helplessness and dependency Experiencing and seeing fellow peers’ ill outcomes reinforces helplessness and hopelessness in others
Promoted harmful sexual practices Promoting Traditional practice of dry sex
Promoting Sexual cleansing
Use of indigenous resources Utilization of indigenous resources as a maternal health-enabler Trained TBAs provided support Provide pragmatic services in the form of psychological and emotional support
Provide adherence-to-treatment support
Help in providing priority attention to HIV positive women upon recommendation at the facility
Provide continuous home-based maternal care
Trained TBAs provided maternal health information Provide useful maternal health information
Trained TBAs as a conduit for referrals Help to refer patients to facilities
Provide transportation support for women to go to facilities
  Utilization of indigenous resources as a maternal health-inhibitor TBAs obscured institutional delivery Presence of TBAs prevents people from seeking professional help
Presence of TBAs prevents government from improving insertional care
TBAs lacked skills, equipment and medical supplies to handle complications TBAs lack skills to Help in PMTCT
TBAs lack skills to Help Easily conduct HIV tests
TBAs lack skills to Help in the provision of ARVs
TBAs cannot Help in conducting caesarian births
community involvement Community involvement as a maternal health-enabler Promoted use of Zambulance Use of Zambulance to transport pregnant mothers to facilities for antenatal, childbirth and postnatal care
Zambulance help to provide utility transportation services for drugs in difficult terrains
Promoted use of ‘waiting shelter’ (shelters where expectant mothers can stay while they await delivery.) Provision of safe spaces for discussing best ways of providing shelter to pregnant women and new mothers
Provision of care and support to other women within the community through the shelters
Use of local leaders and other significant people in communities to promote use of shelters
Provision of nutrition and other supplies necessary during child birth in shelters
Provision of mosquito nets to prevent HIV positive women against Malaria
Encourage uptake of institutional delivery among HIV positive women
   Work together with others to encourage other HIV positive mothers seek antenatal and postnatal care
community involvement as a maternal health-inhibitor Reinforced tokenism Community involvement was just symbolic as it failed to actively and realistically involve locals
Reinforced negative power relations More powerful NGOs and health workers obscured the voices of the weak and vulnerable