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Table 2 Distribution of medical costs by patient characteristics

From: The effects of continuity of care on hospital utilization in patients with knee osteoarthritis: analysis of Nationwide insurance data

(Unit: $)
Category Patient Frequency of hospitalization* Medical costs†
N* Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max
Gender Male 130,621 .02 .178 0 11 127.37 538.240 0.47 139,789.78
Female 181,328 .03 .267 0 14 202.30 638.697 1.63 28,112.14
Age (yr) ≤29 69,212 .00 .084 0 4 70.94 109.578 2.82 4624.45
30–39 30,770 .01 .104 0 4 83.28 810.316 2.82 139,789.78
40–49 45,951 .02 .171 0 8 110.39 248.453 1.63 10,561.95
50–59 64,555 .03 .263 0 11 171.71 450.686 0.47 24,586.82
60–69 49,299 .04 .286 0 10 265.98 775.475 2.19 28,112.14
70–79 52,162 .04 .349 0 14 317.80 907.321 2.19 24,694.04
Payer type NHI 298,290 .02 .222 0 10 165.96 591.144 0.47 139,789.78
Medicaid 13,413 .05 .424 0 14 279.46 760.654 2.19 24,586.82
Others 246 .03 .237 0 2 273.59 539.213 5.68 5011.12
Charlson comorbidity score 0 103,063 .01 .085 0 4 72.69 117.522 2.82 6607.16
1 47,059 .02 .156 0 8 112.84 683.632 1.63 139,789.78
2 62,858 .03 .218 0 11 158.13 356.459 0.47 12,885.72
3+ 98,969 .05 .350 0 14 308.96 886.541 2.19 28,112.14
Outpatient visits 1 103,808 .00 .099 0 9 31.54 115.540 0.47 15,756.91
2–3 79,207 .01 .148 0 14 68.70 186.207 4.38 13,888.52
4–7 60,431 .02 .236 0 11 152.88 444.964 3.92 28,112.14
8+ 68,503 .07 .396 0 14 516.26 1114.627 13.75 139,789.78
Level of COC 0.76–1.00 78,012 .01 .106 0 10 170.09 312.047 3.92 24,586.82
0.51–0.75 57,320 .07 .384 0 14 387.94 1040.586 17.70 139,789.78
0.26–0.50 1470 .13 .615 0 11 202.20 627.165 32.03 9973.78
0.00–0.25 23,534 .10 .454 0 9 489.31 1157.925 17.89 19,840.50
Low (< 3 visits) 151,613 .00 .115 0 14 39.58 134.471 0.47 15,756.91
Hospital type General Hospital 16,730 .07 .372 0 14 281.58 1082.456 2.19 28,112.14
Hospital 32,457 .07 .351 0 10 228.84 776.606 2.19 16,298.44
Clinic 1588 .35 1.421 0 14 333.70 1282.782 2.19 16,734.24
LTC 175,322 .02 .180 0 9 163.87 584.362 0.47 139,789.78
Oriental Hospital 1725 .07 .453 0 8 173.74 395.500 5.95 7899.90
Oriental Clinic 84,127 .01 .121 0 8 138.15 342.284 5.95 14,081.61
Region Urban 140,742 .03 .239 0 14 173.88 660.958 0.47 139,789.78
Rural 171,207 .02 .230 0 11 168.49 544.449 1.63 28,112.14
Ownership Public 2282 .04 .296 0 6 253.48 1145.142 3.30 14,281.70
Corporate 25,316 .07 .441 0 14 253.91 930.462 2.19 28,112.14
Private 284,351 .02 .205 0 10 162.87 553.520 0.47 139,789.78
No. of beds ≤100 277,880 .02 .189 0 14 159.10 532.764 0.47 139,789.78
101–300 23,383 .09 .460 0 11 246.28 894.096 2.19 28,112.14
301–500 4099 .07 .426 0 9 226.00 822.218 2.19 19,486.28
501–700 2614 .09 .547 0 14 348.73 1320.391 4.40 24,694.04
≥701 3973 .09 .381 0 5 380.78 1318.467 5.01 19,840.50
  1. *Calculated total number of hospital admissions divided into total of person–years
  2. † The sum of self-payment costs paid by the beneficiary (patient) and benefits reimbursed by the insurer (Korean National Health Insurance Service) to the medical care institution. The total amount of treatment items determined to be eligible for reimbursement by the HIRA is compared to the amount indicated in the submitted insurance claim statement. Costs are in Korean Won (1200 KRW = 1 US dollar)
  3. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation; HIRA Health Insurance Review Assessment Service