Skip to main content

Table 2 Distribution of participants by factors affecting use of maternal and child health services during pregnancy and birth in Tanzania (N = 4513)

From: Health insurance is important in improving maternal health service utilization in Tanzania—analysis of the 2011/2012 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and malaria indicator survey

Variable Timing of the 1st ANC Visit Completed recommended number of ANC visits Birth attended by a skilled worker
Yes No P-value Yes No P-value Yes No P-value
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Health insurance coverage:
 Yes 76 27.0 205 73.0 *** 19 6.8 262 93.2   218 77.6 63 22.4 ***
 No 686 16.2 3546 83.8 303 7.2 3929 92.8 2332 55.1 1900 44.9
Age group:
 15–19 62 15.7 334 84.3 ** 2 0.5 394 99.5 ** 262 66.2 134 33.8 **
 20–24 229 20.9 868 79.1 77 7.0 1020 93.0 627 57.2 470 42.8
 25–29 197 17.0 960 83.0 103 8.9 1054 91.1 657 56.8 500 43.2
 30–34 117 14.3 702 85.7 71 8.7 748 91.3 442 54.0 377 46.0
 35–39 108 16.0 567 84.0 56 8.3 619 91.7 376 55.7 299 44.3
 40–44 40 13.7 251 86.3 11 3.8 280 96.2 144 49.5 147 50.5
 45–49 9 11.5 69 88.5 2 2.6 76 97.4 42 53.8 36 46.2
Area of Residence:
 Rural 149 20.5 579 79.5 *** 16 2.2 712 97.8 *** 627 86.1 101 13.9 ***
 Urban 613 16.2 3751 83.1 306 8.1 3479 91.9 1923 50.8 1862 49.2
Education level:
 No education 127 12.5 885 87.5 *** 112 11.1 900 88.9 *** 400 39.5 612 60.5 ***
 Primary incomplete 125 18.8 541 81.2 59 8.9 607 91.1 332 49.8 334 50.2
 Primary Complete 406 18.1 1832 81.9 131 5.9 2107 94.1 1359 60.7 879 39.3
 Secondary or higher 104 17.4 493 82.6 20 3.4 577 96.6 459 76.9 138 23.1
Wealth:
 Poorest 137 14.4 815 85.6 *** 81 8.5 871 91.5 *** 372 39.1 580 60.9 ***
 Poorer 141 14.5 830 85.5 96 9.9 875 90.1 458 47.2 513 52.8
 Middle 147 15.4 808 84.6 78 8.2 877 91.8 486 50.9 469 49.1
 Richer 169 18.4 749 81.6 50 5.4 868 94.6 612 66.7 306 33.3
 Richest 168 23.4 549 76.6 17 2.4 700 97.6 622 86.8 95 13.2
Marital status:
 Single 58 18.4 257 81.6 0.524 3 1.0 312 99.0 *** 238 75.6 77 24.4 ***
 Married 627 16.6 3149 83.4 297 7.9 3479 92.1 2087 55.3 1689 44.7
 Separated/Widowed 77 18.2 345 81.8 22 5.2 400 94.8 225 53.3 197 46.7
Occupation:
 Unemployed 108 18.9 462 81.1 *** 36 6.3 534 93.7 *** 380 66.7 190 33.3 ***
 Self employed 87 22.8 295 77.2 24 6.3 358 93.7 198 51.8 184 48.2
 Manual laborer 128 20.4 499 79.6 18 2.9 609 97.1 467 74.5 160 25.5
 Employed 438 14.9 2494 85.1 244 8.3 2688 91.7 1504 51.3 1428 48.7
Number of births in last 5 yrs.:
 1 444 20.2 1758 79.8 *** 0 0.0 2202 100.0 *** 1488 67.6 714 32.4 ***
 2 or more 318 13.8 1993 86.2 322 13.9 1989 86.1 1062 46.0 1249 54.0
Zone:
 Eastern 127 31.1 282 68.9 *** 11 2.7 398 97.3 *** 337 82.4 72 17.6 ***
 Western 55 13.6 349 86.4 34 8.4 370 91.6 220 54.5 184 45.5
 Southern 64 32.2 135 67.8 7 3.5 192 96.5 116 58.3 83 41.7
 Southern Highlands 91 25.0 273 75.0 9 2.5 355 97.5 327 89.8 37 10.2
 South West highlands 66 13.4 425 86.6 31 6.3 460 3.7 240 48.9 251 51.1
 Central 53 11.3 414 88.7 41 8.8 426 91.2 238 51.0 229 49.0
 Northern 64 19.2 270 80.8 8 2.4 326 97.6 183 54.8 151 45.2
 Lake 148 11.7 1120 88.3 131 10.3 1137 89.7 589 46.5 679 53.5
 Zanzibar 94 16.3 483 83.7 50 8.7 527 91.3 300 52.0 277 48.0
  1. Here *, ** and *** indicate p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively