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Table 5 Fixed-Effects Model Estimates for Medicare Standardized Costs

From: Disaster impacts on cost and utilization of Medicare

  IP Per User Annual
Standardized Costs
IRF Per User Annual
Standardized Costs
HH Per User Annual
Standardized Costs
Standardized Annual
Per Capita Costs
  β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Average age of beneficiary 31.57 −17.01,80.15 −67.55 −197.87,62.76 − 1.22 −32.28,29.85 82.16*** 58.53,105.79
Female, % −100.46*** −146.86,-54.06 20.79 −105.09,146.66 −9.70 −39.45,20.04 −27.24* −49.80,-4.67
African American, % 80.62*** 41.77,119.47 42.78 −60.03,145.59 −9.37 −34.21,15.48 57.84*** 38.95,76.74
Eligible for Medicaid, % 1.85 −12.88,16.59 27.30 −11.97,66.57 25.23*** 15.80,34.65 53.14*** 45.98,60.31
People below poverty line, % −8.72 −19.85,2.41 −12.41 −42.07,17.25 −3.09 − 10.21,4.03 3.17 −2.24,8.59
2009 584.15*** 539.03,629.28 430.54*** 310.39,550.68 423.87*** 395.01,452.74 368.24*** 346.29,390.18
2010 729.90*** 679.77,780.03 1166.64*** 1033.08,1300.21 574.67*** 542.58,606.76 571.64*** 547.26,596.02
2011 684.15*** 626.53,741.78 1494.11*** 1340.16,1648.07 313.45*** 276.57,350.34 543.93*** 515.90,571.95
2012 1002.25*** 940.82,1063.69 1914.05*** 1750.19,2077.91 210.58*** 171.22,249.94 550.58*** 520.70,580.45
Hazard Exposure
 Some −122.04*** −161.10,-82.97 52.72 −51.53,156.98 −0.48 −25.46,24.50 −38.48*** −57.48,-19.48
 High 55.07 −28.95,139.09 253.39* 31.61,475.17 −12.78 −66.51,40.95 12.62 −28.24,53.49
 Extreme −23.08 −101.22,55.06 389.95*** 185.07,594.83 −18.74 −68.70,31.23 −78.23*** − 116.24,-40.23
Previous year Hazard Exposure
 Some −106.59*** − 144.84,-68.33 112.00* 10.04,213.96 29.39* 4.92,53.85 −16.81 −35.42,1.79
 High −0.49 −80.10,79.13 252.15* 42.38,461.92 −61.07* − 111.98,-10.15 18.88 −19.84,57.60
 Extreme 55.55 −28.23,139.33 283.56* 63.04,504.08 47.42 −6.15,101.00 36.34 −4.40,77.09
Constant 15,745.10*** 11,770.43,19,719.76 19,606.12*** 8978.26,30,233.98 5281.16*** 2737.67,7824.65 2190.86* 257.78,4123.94
Observations 7695   7387   7689   7695  
R 2 0.316   0.214   0.259   0.482  
  1. Source: CMS GVPUF and FEMA
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001