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Table 3 Univariate analysis of physicians’ knowledge of multidrug resistant bacteria of public health importance across senior and junior physicians

From: Physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions concerning antibiotic resistance: a survey in a Ghanaian tertiary care hospital

Physicians characteristics Numbers Level of training Unadjusted odds ratio P-value
   Senior physicians (n = 43) Junior physicians (n = 116)   
Gender (n = 156)   42 114   
  Male (n = 93) 27 66 1.31 (0.6–2.7) 0.471
Female (n = 63) 15 48   
Age of respondents (n = 159)   39.4 ± 6.5 29.3 ± 4.0 2.71 (1.04–5.02) 0.001
Level of antibiotic resistance in hospital (n = 157) 42 115   
  Very important (n = 14) 4 10 1.11 (0.33–3.73) 1
Important (n = 81) 26 55 1.77 (0.86–3.65) 0.118
Not Important (n = 16) 3 13 0.60 (0.16–2.23) 0.561
Don’t know(n = 46) 9 37 0.57 (0.25–1.32) 0.191
Level of antibiotic resistance in unit (n = 154) 74 80   
  Very important (n = 9) 6 3 2.26 (0.55–9.41) 0.313
Important (n = 56) 30 26 1.41 (0.73–2.74) 0.300
Not important (n = 42) 15 27 0.50 (0.24–1.04) 0.061
Don’t know(n = 48) 23 24 1.05 (0.53–2.09) 0.887
Level of antibiotic resistance in Ghana (n = 157) 42 115   
  Very important (n = 29) 5 24 0.51 (0.18–1.44) 0.200
Important (n = 76) 24 52 1.61 (0.79–3.29) 0.185
Not important (n = 7) 2 3 1.86 (0.30–11.59) 0.610
Don’t know(n = 47) 11 36 0.78 (0.35–1.72) 0.381
Level of antibiotic resistance worldwide (n = 156) 41 115   
  Very important(n = 103) 30 73 1.26 (0.59–2.69) 0.543
Important(n = 51) 13 38 0.86 (0.40–1.83) 0.689
Not important (n = 2) 0 2 1
Antibiotics used appropriately in department (n = 152) 40 112   
  Yes(n = 110) 29 81 1.01 (0.45–2.26) 1.00
No (n = 42) 11 31   
Knowledge of VRE (n = 152)   113 39   
  Yes (n = 74) 48 26 2.71 (1.26–5.81) 0.009
No(n = 78) 65 13   
Have ever managed VRE (n = 155) 115 40   
  Yes(n = 6) 3 3 3.03 (0.59–15.65) 0.339
No(n = 149) 112 37   
Extent of VRE problem in hospital (n = 143) 115 41   
  Very serious(n = 4) 3 1 0.93 (0.09–9.23) 1
Serious(n = 16) 11 5 1.31 (0.43–4.03 0.764
Not serious(n = 136) 101 35 0.81 (0.29–2.27) 0.689
Knowledge of CRE (n = 157) 116 41   
  Yes (n = 59) 34 25 3.77 (1.79–7.93) 0.001
No (n = 98) 82 16   
Have ever managed CRE (n = 158) 116 42   
  Yes (n = 7) 5 2 1.11 (0.21–5.95) 1
No (n = 151) 111 40   
Extent of CRE problem in hospital (n = 18) 9 9   
  Very serious (n = 3) 2 1 0.44 (0.03–5.93) 1
Serious (n = 7) 3 4 1.6 (0.24–10.81) 1
Not serious (n = 8) 4 4 1 (0.16–6.42) 1
Knowledge of ESBLs (n = 152) 111 41   
  Yes (n = 78) 48 30 3.57 (1.63–7.85) 0.001
No(n = 74) 63 11   
Have ever managed ESBLs (n = 156) 114 42   
  Yes (n = 27) 11 16 5.76 (2.39–13.89) 0.001
No (n = 129) 103 26   
No(n = 115) 89 26   
Extent of ESBL problem in hospital (n = 38) 23 15   
  Very serious (n = 6) 4 2 0.73 (0.11–4.59) 1
Serious (n = 25) 15 10 1.06 (0.26–4.22) 0.921
Not serious(n = 7) 4 3 1.19 (0.22–6.26) 1
Knowledge of MRSA (n = 152) 112 40   
  Yes (150) 110 40 0.36 (0.04–2.67) 0.575
No (n = 4) 2 2   
Have ever managed MRSA(n = 152) 76 75   
  Yes (n = 32) 17 32 2.67 (1.32–5.41) 0.005
No (n = 104) 61 43   
Extent of MRSA problem in hospital (n = 85) 64 21   
  Very serious (n = 25) 20 5 0.68 (0.22–2.13) 0.517
Serious (n = 53) 41 12 0.75 (0.27–2.041) 0.571
Not serious(n = 7) 3 4 4.78 (0.97–23.47) 0.061
Correct order of resistance in hospital (n = 156) 114 42   
  EMVC (n = 17)a 8 9 3.61 (1.39–10.11) 0.018
Others (n = 137) 104 33   
  1. VRE vancomycin resistant enterococci, CRE carbapenem resistant enterococci, ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, MRSA methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, KBTH Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital
  2. aEMCV, ESBL-producers>MRSA>CRE > VRE