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Table 1 Disentangling the differences between traditional and PC hospitals

From: Evaluating organizational change in health care: the patient-centered hospital model

  Functional hospital configuration More recent innovations: converging patterns towards PC hospitals
Organizational model/ care delivery model Functional/divisional model Lean organization/process-oriented model
Organizational unit: patients’ care needs and the relationship among specialties Specialty-based units. Practitioners (doctors and nurses) are grouped into semi-autonomous units depending on their specialty of belonging Multi-specialty units. Units are aggregated in accordance with patients’ clinical and assistential needs. Doctors might treat patients located in different units and nurses might assist patients with different pathologies
Model of care Functional nursing (nurses’ task-oriented job: each nurse is specialized in a single care activity) Modular nursing (nurses are responsible for the overall assistential practices required by small groups of patients within the ward)
Use of resources Separated resources (beds, operating rooms, equipment, nursing staff, other staff) devoted to the individual specialties Resource pooling: resources are shared by all the functional specialties regrouped
Managerial roles Head physicians in charge of their departments Bed manager/case manager (as distinguished by the clinical activity) for centralized operation management
Physical environment Hospitals are built around fixed and focused spaces, with often isolated wings Newly built hospitals are designed to maximize resource pooling and patient grouping, flexibility and modularity of spaces