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Table 1 Health outcomes used in study model

From: Cost-effectiveness analysis of metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors compared to metformin+sulfonylureas for treatment of type 2 diabetes

Variables (Annual Rate) Valuea References
Treatment failure
 Metformin monotherapy 0.046 Kahn et al., 2006 [16]
 Metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor 0.013 Rascati et al., 2013 [17] and Bergenheim et al., 2012 [12]
 Metformin+sulfonylurea 0.053 Rascati et al., 2013 [17]
Death rate
 60–70 years 0.021 Zhuo et al., 2014 [19]
 71–80 years 0.051 Zhuo et al., 2014 [19]
 Over 81 years 0.107 Zhuo et al., 2014 [19]
Death hazard ratio of Metformin+SU to Metformin+DPP-4i 1.850 Morgan et al., 2014 [20]
Hypoglycemia
 Severe hypoglycemia among patients with Metformin+SU 0.016 Goke et al., 2010 [9]
 Hypoglycemia with medical assistance among patients with Metformin+SU 0.009 Goke et al., 2010 [9]
 Severe hypoglycemia among patients with insulin glargine 0.010 The Origin Trial Investigators, 2012 [21]
Weight gain in the first year after starting SU 0.510 Bergenheim et al., 2012 [12]
Myocardial infarction
 Metformin monotherapy 0.004 Kahn et al., 2006 [16]
 Metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor 0.004 Gitt et al., 2013 [11]
 Metformin+sulfonylurea 0.000 Gitt et al., 2013 [11]
 Insulin glargine 0.009 The Origin Trial Investigators, 2012 [21]
Heart failure
 Metformin monotherapy 0.003 Kahn et al., 2006 [16]
 Metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor 0.017 Gitt et al., 2013 [11]
 Metformin+sulfonylurea 0.020 Gitt et al., 2013 [11]
 Insulin glargine 0.009 The Origin Trial Investigators, 2012 [21]
Stroke
 Metformin monotherapy 0.003 Kahn et al., 2006 [16]
 Metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor 0.002 Gitt et al., 2013 [11]
 Metformin+sulfonylurea 0.020 Gitt et al., 2013 [11]
 Insulin glargine 0.009 The Origin Trial Investigators, 2012 [21]
  1. a Probability during certain period was converted to the rate per 1 year using following equation. (The rate was assumed to be constant over that period) \( Rate=1-{\left(\frac{initial\kern0.17em probability- probability\kern0.17em change}{initial\kern0.17em probability}\right)}^{\frac{1}{years}} \)