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Table 2 Quality of Included Randomized Controlled Trials (low, high, unclear)

From: The use of external change agents to promote quality improvement and organizational change in healthcare organizations: a systematic review

Source Selection bias Performance bias (blinding of participants and staff) Detection bias (blinding of outcome assessment) Attrition bias (incomplete outcome data) Reporting bias (selective reporting) Other bias (important concerns)
Aspy et al., 2008 [25] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk None
Bertoni et al. 2009 [26] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk None
Clyne et al., 2015 [30] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk None
Dickinson et al., 2014 [18] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Differences in baseline data
Dignan et al., 2014 [28] High risk Low risk Low risk High risk High risk FS and DCBE rates not reported
Engels et al., 2006 [19] Low risk High risk High risk Low risk Unclear Unblinded outcome assessment
Feldstein et al., 2006 [29] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Differences in baseline data
Hennesy et al., 2006 [31] Low risk Low risk Unclear Low risk Low risk None
Hogg et al., 2008 [36] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk None
Lowrie et al., 2014 [22] Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk Low risk Differences in baseline data
Magrini et al., 2014 [23] Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk Low risk None
Mold et al., 2008 [17] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Differences inbaseline data
Mold et al., 2014 [32] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk None
Naughton et al., [21] Low risk Unclear Unclear Low risk Low risk None
Ornstein et al., 2010 [33] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk None
Ornstein et al., 2013 [34] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Practice selection
Parchman et al., 2013 [20] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear Practice selection
Rognstad et al., 2013 [24] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear Control group bias
Sheffer et al., 2012 [27] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk No cessation data
Smidth et al., 2013 [35] Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk None
Varonen et al., 2007 [13] Low risk Unclear Unclear Low risk Low risk Delays in
  1. Risk of bias is assessed using Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias [38]. This tool provides criteria for rating the risk of bias within each domain as low, high, or unclear