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Table 1 Student’s t- or χ2-tests of differences between below and above median LOS for predictors in the HPB Sample

From: Factors associated with prolonged length of stay for elective hepatobiliary and neurosurgery patients: a retrospective medical record review

Means or Percentages At Below LOS Median of the TSP At Above LOS Median of the TSP p-value
Preoperative Factors:
 Age ± s.d. 55.54 ± 14.29 64.62 ± 10.97 < 0.001
 Gender: Male (n) 53.00% (35) 65.20% (43) 0.11
 Race: Chinese (n) 60.60% (40) 57.60% (38) 0.43
 Unhealthy BMI (n) 67.40% (29) 65.20% (15) 0.53
 Braden Scale ± s.d. 22.73 ± 0.93 21.96 ± 2.12 0.06
 Nutrition Score ± s.d. 0.36 ± 0.91 0.73 ± 1.40 0.18
 Functional Status ± s.d. 0.26 ± 0.91 0.88 ± 1.73 0.06
 Smoking History (n) 15.60% (7) 17.90% (5) 0.52
 Number of Comorbidities ± s.d. 1.39 ± 1.10 1.75 ± 1.21 0.18
 Number of Abnormal Labs ± s.d. 2.49 ± 1.68 3.23 ± 1.58 0.08
 Number of Fall Risks ± s.d. 0.05 ± 0.21 0.15 ± 0.36 0.13
 Weekend Admissions (n) 9.10% (6) 9.10% (6) 0.99
 Admissions After 5 pm (n) 18.20% (12) 50.00% (33) < 0.001
 Referral to OT (n) 9.10% (4) 14.80% (4) 0.36
 Referral to PT (n) 18.20% (8) 29.60% (8) 0.20
 Number of Delays ± s.d. 1.11 ± 1.29 2.19 ± 3.76 0.66
Intraoperative Factors:
 Preparation Duration ± s.d. 1:02:51 ± 0:26:16 1:14:35 ± 0:29:44 0.02
 Operation Duration ± s.d. 2:53:09 ± 2:09:03 3:48:42 ± 2:36:39 0.03
 Operation Ends After 5 pm (n) 19.70% (13) 40.90% (27) 0.01
Postoperative Factors:
 Number of Insertions ± s.d. 1.89 ± 2.16 1.18 ± 1.77 0.02
 Number of HAI ± s.d. 0.20 ± 1.21 0.48 ± 0.85 0.01
 Number of Medications ± s.d. 0.18 ± 0.45 0.44 ± 0.85 0.46
 Weekend Discharge (n) 37.90% (25) 28.80% (19) 0.18
 Discharged After 5 pm (n) 12.10% (8) 19.70% (13) 0.17
  1. LOS length of stay
  2. HPB hepatobiliary
  3. TSP table of surgical procedure
  4. s.d standard deviation
  5. BMI body-mass index
  6. Unhealthy BMI BMI outside the 18.5–23 range
  7. OT occupational therapy
  8. PT physiotherapy
  9. HAI hospital-acquired infections