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Table 5 Direct healthcare and indirect annual costs per MS patient (in EUR) according to disability level

From: Impact on healthcare resource utilization of multiple sclerosis in Spain

  EDSS 0–3.5 EDSS 4.0–9.5 Total P-value
N = 152 N = 70 N = 222  
Unadjusted costs
Annual cost (€) per patient, mean (SD)
 Direct healthcare costs 9331.7 (5504.5) 11,112.2 (6649.9) 9893.2 (5932.7) 0.037
  Primary care 8614.7 (5199.4) 8887.5 (6178.4) 8700.7 (5514.1) 0.733
  Medical visits 197.0 (132.9) 285.6 (131.6) 224.9 (138.5) <0.001
  Lab tests 61.3 (59.0) 83.5 (59.6) 68.3 (60.0) 0.010
 Conventional radiology 34.6 (45.6) 59.7 (48.0) 42.5 (47.8) <0.001
  Supplementary tests 75.3 (110.5) 158.2 (181.4) 101.5 (141.8) <0.001
  Medication 272.8 (173.4) 417.6 (193.1) 318.5 (191.6) <0.001
  MS-specific drugs 7973.7 (5196.7) 7882.9 (6186.7) 7945.0 (5514.0) 0.910
  Specialised care 717.0 (1361.2) 2224.7 (2342.7) 1192.5 (1863.5) <0.001
  Hospitalisations 418.0 (1211.5) 1792.5 (2147.8) 851.4 (1689.0) <0.001
  Medical visits 156.8 (102.4) 200.6 (134.0) 170.6 (114.8) 0.008
 Emergency room visits 142.3 (156.9) 231.7 (180.1) 170.5 (169.4) <0.001
Indirect costsa 12,775.0 (13,768.9) 20,495.4 (12,862.0) 15,209.4 (13,932.3) <0.001
Total costs 22,106.8 (15,313.8) 31,607.6 (14,435.0) 25,102.5 (15,648.1) <0.001
Adjusted costsb    Difference between unadjusted and adjusted costs  
Annual cost (€) per patient, mean (95% CI)
Direct Healthcare costs 9124 (8100, 10,147) 11,476 (9988, 12,963) 2352 0.015
Primary care 8331 (7364, 9296) 9477 (8072, 10,881) 1146 0.205
Specialised care 793 (499, 1087) 1999 (1571, 2426) 1206 <0.001
Indirect costs (productivity) 14,033 (11,715, 16,351) 17,766 (14,395, 21,136) 3733 0.049
Total costs 23,157 (20,561, 25,753) 29,242 (25,467, 33,016) 6085 0.013
  1. 95% CI 95% confidence interval, EDSS expanded disability status scale, SD standard deviation. aIndirect costs: loss of work productivity. bANCOVA model: costs adjusted by covariables (age, gender, resource utilization bands [RUBs], Charlson comorbidity index, and time since diagnosis of the multiple sclerosis)