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Table 3 Distribution of household expenditure and the progressivity of the health care financing sources

From: Improving equity in health care financing in China during the progression towards Universal Health Coverage

Income quintiles Per capita household expenditure General taxation UEBMI URBMI NRCMS OOP Overall
1—poorest 6.15% 6.37% 1.72% 11.35% 30.35% 6.39%  
2 11.61% 12.19% 7.30% 15.17% 24.96% 9.65%  
3 16.29% 17.13% 15.04% 21.88% 18.09% 11.82%  
4 22.71% 23.42% 25.01% 22.00% 13.58% 18.72%  
5—richest 43.24% 40.89% 50.93% 29.60% 13.02% 53.42%  
Gini/CI 0.3678 ** (0.3581 to 0.3772) 0.3436 ** (0.3342 to 0.3529) 0.4978 ** (0.4673 to 0.5283) 0.1940 ** (0.1515 to 0.2364) −0.1921 ** (−0.2138 to −0.1704) 0.4572 ** (0.3985 to 0.5160)  
KI \ −0.0241 ** (−0.0315 to −0.0166) 0.1301 ** (0.1008 to 0.1594) −0.1737 ** (−0.2166 to −0.1308) −0.5598 ** (−0.5830 to −0.5365) 0.0896 ** (0.0345 to 0.1447) 0.0444
Weight   0.3779 0.1576 0.0087 0.0097 0.4461  
Dominance test
 - Against the 45° line D- D- D- D+ D-  
 - Against the Lorenz curve D+ D- D+ D+ D-  
  1. Note: The 95% confidence intervals are in the parentheses; **implies statistical significance at the level of 0.01; *implies statistical significance at the level of 0.05; D+ (D-) implies that the concentration curve dominates (is dominated by) the line of equity or the Lorenz curve