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Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate analysis of the factors associated with polypharmacy (≥5 different drugs/day), Colaus study, Switzerland, 2009–2012, 4938 participants

From: Prevalence and determinants of polypharmacy in Switzerland: data from the CoLaus study

  No (n = 4358) Yes (n = 580) P-value Multivariate P-value for trend
Gender    0.973   
 Woman 2325 (53.4) 309 (53.3)   1 (ref.)  
 Man 2033 (46.7) 271 (46.7)   0.92 (0.75–1.12)  
Age (years) 56.6 ± 10.1 66.0 ± 9.1 <0.001   
Age group (%)    <0.001   <0.001
 40–49 1359 (31.2) 40 (6.9)   1 (ref.)  
 50–64 1970 (45.2) 187 (32.2)   2.90 (2.04–4.12)  
 65–81 1029 (23.6) 353 (60.9)   10.3 (7.26–14.5)  
BMI categories (%)    <0.001   <0.001
 Normal + underweight 2034 (46.7) 125 (21.6)   1 (ref.)  
 Overweight 1685 (38.7) 247 (42.6)   2.09 (1.65–2.66)  
 Obese 639 (14.7) 208 (35.9)   4.38 (3.39–5.66)  
Education (%)    <0.001   0.002
 High 995 (22.8) 70 (12.1)   1 (ref.)  
 Middle 1154 (26.5) 124 (21.4)   1.15 (0.83–1.58)  
 Low 2209 (50.7) 386 (66.6)   1.56 (1.17–2.07)  
Marital status (%)    0.121   
 Living alone 1851 (42.5) 266 (45.9)   1 (ref.)  
 Living in a couple 2507 (57.5) 314 (54.1)   0.86 (0.71–1.05)  
Born in Switzerland (%)    0.303   
 No 1621 (37.2) 203 (35.0)   1 (ref.)  
 Yes 2737 (62.8) 377 (65.0)   0.87 (0.72–1.06)  
Smoking status (%)    <0.001   <0.001
 Never 1816 (41.7) 192 (33.1)   1 (ref.)  
 Former 1588 (36.4) 271 (46.7)   1.42 (1.14–1.75)  
 Current 954 (21.9) 117 (20.2)   1.63 (1.25–2.12)  
  1. BMI Body mass index. Bivariate analysis using chi-square for categorical variables and student’s t-test for continuous variables; results are expressed as number of participants (column percentage) or as mean ± standard deviation. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression; results are expressed as odds ratio and (95% confidence interval)