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Table 5 Theory-based methods and practical applications

From: Using an intervention mapping approach to develop a discharge protocol for intensive care patients

Determinant Method (Related theory and reference) Description (In Bartholomew et al. [30] Examples of practical applications
Basic conditions Participation (Diffusion of Innovations Theory [52]) Assuring high level engagement of the participants´ group in problem solving, decision making, and change activities. Active involvement of three groups of stakeholders, using feedback of all participants, development of protocol through project group members.
  Persuasive communication (Persuasion -Communication Matrix [66], Elaboration Likelihood Method [51]) Guiding individuals and environmental agents toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by using arguments or other means. The discharge protocol is relevant, practical, and not too discrepant from the nurses’ beliefs and values.
Knowledge Knowledge transfer (Elaboration Likelihood Method [51]) Stimulating the learner to add meaning to the information that is processed. Bridge the nurses’ knowledge gap in PICS by providing information in written material, oral explanations, and digital means.
  Active learning
(Social cognitive Theory [67])
Encouraging learning from goal-driven and activity-based experience. Need for time and information. Group discussion on optimal discharge actions from ICU.
Teacher stimulates nurses to ask questions and think of preventing PICS.
Attitude Implementation intention (Theories of Goal Directed Behavior [68]) Prompting making if-then plans that link situational cues with responses that are effective in attaining goals or desired outcomes. If the intended discharge becomes final, then the ICU nurse calls the contact person, starts oral conversation with the patient according to the checklist, and provides written material on PICS.
  Discussion and elaboration (Elaboration Likelihood Model [51]) Listening to arguments and opinions to ensure that the correct mental schemas are activated. Organize team discussions on facilitators and barriers with the discharge protocol.
Self-efficacy Skill training
(Social Cognitive Theory [67])
Learning by practicing the needed skills. Nurses feel satisfied and competent by practicing the discharge talk with an ICU patient.
(Theories of learning [67, 69])
Giving information to nurses regarding the extent to which they are accomplishing learning. Showing results of a pretest and posttest on PCIS.
Perceived social influence Stimulate communication to mobilize social support (Diffusion of Innovations Theory [52], Theories of Social Networks and Social Support [70]) Combines caring, trust, openness, and acceptance with support for behavioral change, positive support is available in the environment. Champions and nursing leaders discuss and promote performing the discharge protocol. Teachers help nurses to assimilate knowledge on PICS.
  Increasing stakeholder influence (Stakeholder theory [71]) Increase stakeholder power, legitimacy, and urgency, often by forming coalitions and using community development and social action to change an organization’s policies. Storytelling by experts from Foundation FCIC. Patients included in focus group discussions on relevant topics