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Table 3 Brief overview of the self-rated health measurement tools identified in the scoping review

From: Measuring self-rated health status among resettled adult refugee populations to inform practice and policy – a scoping review

Measurement focus Measurement tool Design/use & composition Publically available Reliability testing in refugee research Validity testing in refugee research
General Health Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS-SF) Designed for use in clinical practice/research/general pop’n surveys to measure perceived mental/physical health status in past month. Several versions with 6, 12, 20 or 36 items. Yes Yes, versions SF-6, SF-12, SF-20 & SF-36 Yes, version SF-12
General Health New Mexico Refugee Symptom Checklist-121 (NMRSC-121) Designed for use within non-clinical refugee research for assessment of distressing physical/emotional symptoms in past year (121 items). No Yes Yes
General Health Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) Designed to measure quality of life across cultures in general pop’n (8 items). Yes Yes No
General Health WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) Designed for use in research/clinical settings to assess self-rated quality of life across different cultures in past 2 weeks (26 items). No Yes Yes
General Health WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHO-DASS) Designed for use within clinical/community pop’ns to measure quality of life (36 items). No Yes No
Common Mental Disorders Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL) Designed to measure psychological distress within non-clinical samples of Afghanis in past 2 weeks (23 items). No Yes No
Common Mental Disorders Augmented Anxiety Sensitivity Index (AASI) Designed to measure culturally specific fears within Cambodian refugee outpatients (16 items). No Yes No
Common Mental Disorders Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Designed to measure anxiety in adults & adolescents in clinical/research settings (21 items) Yes No No
Common Mental Disorders Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Designed to detect/assess/monitor changes in depressive symptoms in clinical settings (21 items). Yes Yes Yes
Common Mental Disorders Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) Designed to measure level of depressive symptoms in a general population in past week (20 items) Yes Yes No
Common Mental Disorders Depression, Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) Designed to measure symptoms of depression/anxiety/stress in community settings in past week (20 items). Yes Yes No
Common Mental Disorders General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) Designed for identifying psychiatric illness in Western patients. Several versions with 12, 28, 30 or 60 items. No Yes No
Common Mental Disorders General Perceived Self-Efficiacy Scale (GPSE) Designed to assess self-efficacy within Western non-clinical & clinical populations (10 items). No Yes No
Common Mental Disorders Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) Originally designed for use in Western clinical settings. Indochinese version developed to screen anxiety & depression in clinical refugee samples (25 items). No Yes Yes
Common Mental Disorders Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS) Designed for use in Western clinical & research settings to measure anxiety & depression (14 items). No No No
Common Mental Disorders Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Designed to measure internalized stigma within Western clinical samples (29 items) Yes Yes Yes
Common Mental Disorders Kessler Psychological Scale (KPS) Developed to screen for distress & mental illness in Western populations in past 4 weeks. Has been adopted in Western & non-Western countries as screening & outcome measure in primary care and mental health settings. Several versions with 6 or 10 items. Yes Yes No
Common Mental Disorders Mental Health Inventory (MHI) Designed for use in general Western pop’ns to detect mental health disorders (38 items). Yes Yes No
Common Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Designed to measure depression & severity in Western clinical samples (9 items) No No No
Common Mental Disorders Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) Designed to screen distress, anxiety & depression in clinical samples of refugees (15 items). Yes Yes Yes
Common Mental Disorders Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) Designed as psychiatric screening instrument for use in primary health care/community settings in low/middle income countries. Several versions with 5 or 20 items. Yes No No
Common Mental Disorders Sheenan Disability Inventory (SDI) Designed to assess functional impairment associated with anxiety disorder diagnosis in Western clinical samples (3 items) Yes No No
Common Mental Disorders Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) Designed as mental health screening tool for Western clinical samples (90 items; 10 subscales asking about mental health symptoms in past week). No No Yes
Common Mental Disorders Vietnamese Depression Scale (VDS) Designed to measure depression among clinical samples of refugees (15 items) No Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Annihilation Anxiety Scale (AAS) Designed for use in clinical settings & in research with severely traumatized populations (eg refugees). (3 items) No Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Cambodian Somatic Symptom & Syndrome Inventory (CSSI) Designed for use in clinical samples of Cambodian refugees to assess somatic symptoms & cultural syndromes in past week (23 items). Very specific to Cambodians. No Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Comprehensive Trauma Inventory-104 (CTI-104) Designed for use within community samples of refugees to assess traumatic events (104 items). Yes Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Cumulative Trauma Disorder Scale (CTDS) Designed for use within clinical & non-clinical samples of refugees to measure trauma symptoms in past month (15 items) No Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) Designed to measure dissociation in general & clinic Western populations (28 items). Yes Yes No
Trauma/PTSD HADStress Designed to measure somatic symptoms within community sample of refugees (4 items). No No Yes
Trauma/PTSD Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) Designed for clinical samples of refugees to measure trauma. Must be modified and adapted to the characteristics of each cultural group. 4 parts. Part 1 measures trauma. Part 2 asks for description of most traumatic experience/event experienced during the refugee experience. Part 3 assesses likelihood of head injury. Part 4 measures trauma symptoms. No Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Health Leaflet Designed to measure PTSD within community samples of refugees (15 items). No No Yes
Trauma/PTSD Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) Designed to measure current subjective distress related to a specific event among Western clinic samples (15 items). Yes Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Designed to assess personality traits & psychopathology among Western clinic samples (567 items). Yes No Yes
Trauma/PTSD Post Migration Living Difficulties Scale (PMLD) Designed to assess current life stressors of asylum-seekers (23 items). No No Yes
Trauma/PTSD Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) Designed to assess positive outcomes among traumatized non clinic Western pop’ns (21 items). Yes Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) Designed to measure self-report measure of PTSD in clinical/research settings. 4 parts. Part 1 is checklist of traumatic events experienced/witnessed by respondent. Part 2: asks respondents to indicate which event has disturbed them the most in past month. Part 3 asks for PTSD symptoms items experienced in past month. Yes Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview for Vietnamese Refugees (PTSD-IVR) Designed to assess trauma among clinic samples of Vietnamese refugees (30 items) No Yes Yes
Trauma/PTSD Posttraumatic Symptom Disorder Checklist-90 (PCL-90) Designed to measure PTSD among non-clinical samples in past month (17 items) Yes No Yes
Trauma/PTSD Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (PTSS) Designed to measure PTSD symptoms in past week within trauma affected samples (10 or 16 items) Yes Yes No
Trauma/PTSD Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) Designed for use in primary care/other medical settings to assess dimensions of PTSD (5 items). Yes No No
Trauma/PTSD Resettlement Stressor Scale (RSS) Designed within a community sample of Cambodian refugee adolescents to assess trauma events in migration/present settlement (32 items). Yes No Yes
Trauma/PTSD Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ) Designed in general clinic western population for use in research/primary care/emergency rooms to assess potentially traumatic events (23 items). No No No
Trauma/PTSD War Trauma Scale (WTS) Designed within clinical samples of Cambodian adolescent refugees that had lived through the Pol Pot regime. Items are all worded in relation to Pol Pot era. (42 items). No Yes Yes