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Table 5 Bi-Variate and multi-variate association between greatest payment reduction and facility and neighborhood Co-Variates

From: Early winners and losers in dialysis center pay-for-performance

Outcome: Greatest Payment Reduction (≥1.5%) versus Other Bi-Variate Multi-variate
Co-Variates OR OR
Facility Level Characteristics
Chain Type
 Other chain Referent Referent
 Chain 1 0.56a [0.41, 0.75] 0.56a [0.41, 0.76]
 Chain 2 0.73a [0.55, 0.96] 0.69a [0.52, 0.91]
 Independent 1.16 [0.87, 1.54] 1.11 [0.83, 1.49]
Total # Stations (per station)
 Low (0–13) Referent Referent
 Medium (14–20) 0.95 [0.73, 1.22] 0.94 [0.72, 0.22]
 High (21–80) 1.21 [0.94, 1.56] 1.08 [0.82, 1.42]
Length of Operation (per year) 1.02a [1.01, 1.03] 1.02a [1.01, 1.03]
Neighborhood Level Characteristics
Percent African-American
 Quartile 1 ≤ 8.6% Referent Referent
 Quartile 2 8.6%–15.7% 0.98 [0.72, 1.32] 1.00 [0.74, 1.36]
 Quartile 3 15.7% -25% 1.17 [0.87, 1.57] 1.17 [0.85, 1.59]
 Quartile 4 > 25% 1.09 [0.80, 1.49] 1.06 [0.75, 1.50]
Percent Below Federal Poverty Level
 Quartile 1 ≤ 1.7% Referent Referent
 Quartile 2 1.7% - 7.2% 1.29 [0.97, 1.72] 1.21 [0.91, 1.62]
 Quartile 3 7.2% - 24.9% 0.98 [0.72, 1.33] 0.91 [0.66, 1.25]
 Quartile 4 > 24.7% 1.24 [0.92, 1.66] 1.10 [0.79, 1.51]
  1. a p < 0.05 Confidence intervals are at the 95% significance level. Multivariable model includes profit status, total number of stations by tertile, length of operation, and both percent African American and percent below Federal Poverty Level by facility neighborhood (by quartile)