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Table 3 Mean change in clinical performance 2007–2010 by facility and neighborhood, and performance-level characteristics

From: Early winners and losers in dialysis center pay-for-performance

Variable Mean Change in Hgb <10 g/dL [95% CI]b Mean Change in Hgb > 12 g/dL [95% CI]b Change in URR < 65 [95% CI]c
N (%) 4259 4259 4191
All facilities 1.36 [1.25, 1.47] −33.87 [−34.52, −33.22] −0.80 [−0.97, −0.62]
Facility Level Characteristics
Chain
 Others 1.57 [1.36, 1.78] −30.94 [−32.25, −29.64] −0.97 [−1.36, −0.57]
 Chain 1 1.18 [1.00, 1.36] −43.63a [−44.75,-42.53] −0.25a [−0.54, 0.04]
 Chain 2 1.25 [1.05, 1.45] −32.32a [−33.37,-32.27] −0.96 [−1.24, −0.68]
 Independent 1.42 [1.11, 1.73] −27.39a [−28.94,-25.84] −1.03 [−1.51, −0.55]
Neighborhood Level Characteristics (mean, 95% CIs)
Percent African-American
 Quartile 1 ≤ 8.6% 1.27 [1.03, 1.50] −30.85 [−32.21, −29.49] −0.32 [0.67, 0.04]
 Quartile 2 8.6%–15.7% 1.32 [1.11, 1.53] −33.01 [−34.26, −31.76] −0.96 [−1.42, −0.51]
 Quartile 3 15.7% -25% 1.47 [1.26, 1.69] −34.97a [−36.26,-33.68] −0.80 [−1.12, −0.48]
 Quartile 4 > 25% 1.36 [1.14, 1.58] −36.48a [−37.73,-35.22] −1.06a [−1.35, −0.76]
Percent Below Federal Poverty Level
 Quartile 1 ≤ 1.7% 1.31 [1.09, 1.53] −33.19 [−34.50, −31.89] −0.86 [−1.16, −0.55]
 Quartile 2 1.7% - 7.2% 1.38 [1.16, 1.60] −33.81 [−35.11, −32.52] −0.79 [−1.16, −0.42]
 Quartile 3 7.2% - 24.9% 1.30 [1.09, 1.50] −34.52 [−35.83, −33.20] −0.76 [−1.16, −0.37]
 Quartile 4 > 24.7% 1.42 [1.18, 1.66] −34.05 [−35.31, −32.79] −0.76 [−1.12, −0.41]
Payment Reduction
 1 0% −0.16 [−0.26, −0.06] −34.50 [−35.38, −33.82] −1.58 [−1.78, −1.37]
 2 0.5% 2.27a [2.09, 2.45] −32.28 [−33.91, −30.65] 0.39a [−0.04, 0.81]
 3 1% 4.16a [3.98, 4.35] −33.13 [−35.80, −30.46] 1.11a [0.51, 1.72]
 4 ≥ 1.5% 7.78a [7.44, 8.11] −32.63 [−34.64, −30.62] 0.69a [−0.04, 1.42]
  1. aSignificant Difference, p < 0.05 based on ANOVA. bHemoglobin (Hgb) goals: 10 ≤ Hgb ≤ 12, so decreasing proportion less than 10 or greater than 12 is a positive change. cAdequate dialysis is Urea Reduction Rate (URR) greater than or equal to 65, so increasing proportion is positive change. Confidence intervals are at the 95% significance level