Skip to main content

Table 2 Bi-Variate and multi-variate association between any payment reduction and facility and neighborhood Co-Variates

From: Early winners and losers in dialysis center pay-for-performance

Outcome: Any Payment Reduction vs. None Bivariate Multi-variate
Co-Variates OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Facility level characteristics
Chain Type
 Other Chain Referent Referent
 Chain 1 0.78a [0.66, 0.92] 0.77a [0.65, 0.91]
 Chain 2 0.84a [0.71, 1.00] 0.74a [0.62, 0.88]
 Independent 1.01 [0.85, 1.21] 0.94 [0.78, 1.13]
Total # Stations (per station)
 Low (0–13) Referent Referent
 Medium (14–20) 1.41a [1.21, 1.65] 1.30a [1.11, 1.53]
 High (21–80) 1.81a [1.54, 2.12] 1.42a [1.20, 1.69]
 Length of Operation (per year) 1.04a [1.03, 1.04] 1.03a [1.03, 1.04]
Neighborhood Level Characteristics
Percent African-American
 Quartile 1 ≤ 8.6% Referent Referent
 Quartile 2 8.6%–15.7% 1.07 [0.90, 1.28] 1.01 [0.84, 1.21]
 Quartile 3 15.7% -25% 1.29a [1.08, 1.55] 1.15 [0.96, 1.39]
 Quartile 4 > 25% 1.52a [1.26, 1.83] 1.25a [1.02, 1.54]
Percent Below Federal Poverty Level
 Quartile 1 ≤ 1.7% Referent Referent
 Quartile 2 1.7% - 7.2% 1.16 [0.98, 1.39] 1.08 [0.90, 1.29]
 Quartile 3 7.2% - 24.9% 1.18a [0.99, 1.41] 1.06 [0.88, 1.28]
 Quartile 4 > 24.7% 1.42a [1.19, 1.70] 1.15 [0.95, 1.39]
  1. a p < 0.05. Multivariable model includes profit status, number of stations by tertile, length of operation, and both percent African American and percent below Federal Poverty Level by facility neighborhood by quartile. Confidence intervals are at the 95% significance level