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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of hemodialysis facilities overall and by pay-for-performance payment group

From: Early winners and losers in dialysis center pay-for-performance

Variable Overall Group 1 (0% reduction) Group 2 (0.5% reduction) Group 3 (1% reduction) Group 4 (≥1.5% reduction)
N (% of total) 5089 3580 (70.3%) 811 (15.9%) 289 (5.7%) 409 (8.0%)
Facility level characteristics
For-Profit (% For-Profit by Payment Group)a 4205 2991 672 235 307
82.6% 83.6% 82.9% 81.3% 75.1%
Chain (% Chain by Payment Group)a 3676 2611 588 217 260
79.0% 79.9% 79.0% 81.6% 68.8%
 Chain 1 1321 968 220 60 73
26.0% 27.1% 27.1% 20.8% 17.9%
 Chain 2 1291 917 196 80 98
25.4% 25.6% 24.2% 27.7% 24.0%
 Independent 998
19.6%
682
19.1%
168
20.7%
50
17.3%
98
24.0%
 Other Chain (Reference) 1477
29.0%
1011
28.3%
227
15.4%
99
6.7%
140
9.5%
Size (#stations)a 17.63 17.15 19.36 19.74 18.63
[17.4,17.9] [16.9,17.4] [18.8,19.9] [18.8,20.7] [17.8,19.5]
 Low (0–13) 1667
32.8%
1265
35.3%
203
25.0%
65
22.5%
134
32.8%
 Medium (14–20) 1845
36.25%
1289
36.0%
304
37.5%
117
40.5%
135
33.0%
 High (21–80) 1577
31.0%
1026
28.7%
304
37.5%
107
37.0%
140
34.2%
Length of Operation 14.65 13.74 16.82 17.35 16.43
years (95% CIs)a [14.4, 14.9] [13.4,14.02 [16.2,17.4] [16.3,18.4] [15.6,17.3]
Neighborhood level characteristics (mean, 95% CIs)
Percent African Americana 18.2% 17.0% 20.9% 22.5% 20.6%
[17.5,18.8] [16.3,17.8] [19.1, 22.6] [19.4, 25.5] [18.0, 23.1]
Percent Poverty 18.5% 15.8% 16.7% 17.1% 17.5%
[18.1,18.8] [15.8,16.1] [16.1,17.3] [16.0,18.2] [16.5,18.5]
Outcomes (mean, 95% CIs)
Mean Total Performance Score* 26.3
[26.1, 26.4]
18.0
[17.6, 18.4]
19.3
[18.4, 20.2]
20.1
[18.5, 21.7]
19.2
[17.9, 20.6]
  1. a p < 0.05, difference across groups. *Pay-for-Performance Payment Categories: Total Performance Score (TPS) 26–30, 0% payment reduction; TPS 21–25, 0.5% payment reduction; TPS 16–20, 1% payment reduction; TPS less than 15, payment reduction ≥1.5%