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Table 2 Descriptive statistics, mean differences and effect sizes of outcome variables (N = 440)

From: Health-care utilization of patients with chronic back pain before and after rehabilitation

  Before rehabilitation After rehabilitation Mean differences
At least 1 consultation (%) Range M (SD) At least 1 consultation (%) Range M (SD) T Effect size (Cohens’d)
Index health-care utilization 99.7 0–151 23.24 (16.75) 93.9 0–146 19.41 (19.27) 3.806*** .21
General practitioners 94.6 0–120 5.22 (6.59) 85.9 0–48 3.76 (4.68) 4.276*** .24
Specialists 93.0 0–48 5.32 (5.48) 84.4 0–35 3.53 (4.51) 4.264*** .34
Admission to hospital 30.2 0–9 0.41 (0.82) 18.6 0–15 0.22 (0.87) 2.758** .22
Physiotherapy 67.0 0–90 8.29 (0.16) 49.2 0–60 7.89 (0.26) 0.293 .22
Massage 45.9 0–50 4.08 (9.56) 34.8 0–60 3.24 (11.01) 2.675** .04
Psychotherapy 16.3 0–48 1.01 (6.14) 17.8 0–25 0.99 (6.23) 0.288 .14
Complementary therapist 17.3 0–20 0.94 (3.539) 15.2 0–15 0.65 (3.08) 2.144* .01
  1. M mean, SD standard deviation; *** p < .001, ** p < .01,* p < .05