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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression analysis of service satisfaction in urban and rural Ghana

From: Urban-rural difference in satisfaction with primary healthcare services in Ghana

Factors Urban Rural
Odds ratio p-value (95% CI) Odds ratio p-value (95% CI)
Region
 Western (ref.) 1.00   1.00  
 Central 1.04 0.852(0.66–1.65) 0.49 0.004(0.30–0.80)*
 Greater Accra 1.64 0.017(1.09–2.47)* 1.07 0.869(0.46–2.52)
 Volta 1.05 0.858(0.64–1.71) 0.19 0.000(0.12–0.31)*
 Eastern 0.75 0.201(0.48–1.17) 0.31 0.000(0.19–0.50)*
 Ashanti 1.06 0.773(0.71–1.60) 0.54 0.017(0.32–0.89)*
 Brong Ahafo 0.87 0.520(0.56–1.33) 0.38 0.000(0.24–0.61)*
 Northern 0.56 0.021(0.34–0.92)* 0.25 0.000(0.15–0.41)*
 Upper East 1.75 0.023(1.08–2.84)* 0.82 0.455(0.49–1.37)
 Upper West 0.62 0.067(0.37–1.03) 0.39 0.000(0.24–0.65)*
Educational attainment
 No formal education(ref.) 1.00   1.00  
 Primary 1.29 0.177 (0.89–1.88) 1.09 0.570 (0.81–1.46)
 Secondary 0.91 0.559 (0.67–1.24) 0.99 0.933 (0.76–1.28)
 Higher 1.12 0.599 (0.74–1.69) 0.74 0.427 (0.36–1.55)
Wealth index
 Poorest (ref.) 1.00   1.00  
 Poorer 0.89 0.678 (0.53–1.52) 0.88 0.384 (0.67–1.17)
 Middle 1.14 0.575 (0.72–1.80) 1.00 0.991 (0.71–1.42)
 Richer 0.89 0.632 (0.56–1.41) 1.38 0.204 (0.84–2.29)
 Richest 0.82 0.430 (0.51–1.34) 1.22 0.820 (0.22–6.87)
Type of facility
 Public/government (ref.) 1.00   1.00  
 Private 1.99 0.000 (1.56–2.53)* 1.42 0.080 (0.96–2.09)
  1. *p significant at p < 0.05; Urban-Pseudo R 2 = 0.04; Rural- Pseudo R 2 = 0.05
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