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Table 3 Prevalence of chronic diseases in individual patient segments

From: Evaluation of a practical expert defined approach to patient population segmentation: a case study in Singapore

Variable Stable Chronic Complex Chronic without frequent hospital admissions Complex chronic with frequent hospital admissions End of Life p-value
N = 177,550 N = 90,540 N = 4705 N = 2955  
Number of chronic diseases mean, (SD) 2.4 (1.3) 2.4 (2.0) 3.5 (2.9) 1.6 (1.6) <0.001
Chronic Diseasesa
 Diabetes without chronic complication (%) 30,823 (17.4) 23,506 (26.0) 1622 (34.5) 178 (6.0) <0.001
 Hypertension (%) 62,413 (35.2) 39,054 (43.1) 2540 (54.0) 433 (14.7) <0.001
 Chronic kidney disease without ESRF (%) 4954 (2.8) 6674 (7.4) 1341 (28.5) 42 (1.4) <0.001
 Asthma (%) 7041 (4.0) 3697 (4.1) 246 (5.2) 34 (1.2) <0.001
 Hyperlipidemia (%) 59,426 (33.5) 34,951 (38.6) 1885 (40.1) 219 (7.4) <0.001
 Osteoarthritis (%) 22,367 (12.6) 10,966 (12.1) 619 (13.2) 98 (3.3) <0.001
 Osteoporosis (%) 452 (0.3) 208 (0.2) 2 (0.0) 2 (0.1) <0.001
 Benign Prostatic hypertrophy (%) 1265 (0.7) 687 (0.8) 28 (0.6) 3 (0.1) <0.001
 COPD without cor pulmonale (%) 3084 (1.7) 4154 (4.6) 453 (9.6) 72 (2.4) <0.001
 Hyperthyroidism (%) 1720 (1.0) 422 (0.5) 14 (0.3) 2 (0.1) <0.001
 Hypothyroidism (%) 2915 (1.6) 1076 (1.2) 45 (1.0) 1 (0.0) <0.001
 Diabetes with chronic complications (%) 0 (0.0) 8935 (9.9) 450 (9.6) 12 (0.4) <0.001
 Stroke (%) 4737 (2.7) 8207 (9.1) 680 (14.5) 67 (2.3) <0.001
 CKD5 or ESRF (%) 950 (0.5) 3600 (4.0) 1241 (26.4) 40 (1.4) <0.001
 COPD with cor pulmonale (%) 2169 (1.2) 3763 (4.2) 441 (9.4) 72 (2.4) <0.001
 Major Depression 1302 (0.7) 5398 (6.0) 212 (4.5) 22 (0.7) <0.001
 Schizophrenia (%) 273 (0.2) 959 (1.1) 50 (1.1) 7 (0.2) <0.001
 Dementia (%) 331 (0.2) 671 (0.7) 65 (1.4) 4 (0.1) <0.001
 Bipolar disorder (%) 2 (0.0) 7 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) <0.001
 Collagen Vascular diseases (%) 107 (0.1) 1412 (1.6) 128 (2.7) 15 (0.5) <0.001
 Anxiety (%) 693 (0.4) 2616 (2.9) 53 (1.1) 6 (0.2) <0.001
 Parkinson’s disease (%) 282 (0.2) 841 (0.9) 62 (1.3) 7 (0.2) <0.001
 Epilepsy (%) 289 (0.2) 1801 (2.0) 108 (2.3) 16 (0.5) <0.001
 Coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction 10,159 (5.7) 19,562 (21.6) 1513 (32.2) 122 (4.1) <0.001
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 0 (0.0) 718 (0.8) 91 (1.9) 2 (0.1) <0.001
 Hip fracture (%) 20 (0.0) 12 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 0 (0.0) <0.001
 Spine fracture (%) 185 (0.1) 827 (0.9) 77 (1.6) 8 (0.3) <0.001
 Moderate or severe liver disease, Liver cirrhosis 0 (0.0) 2843 (3.1) 245 (5.2) 34 (1.2) <0.001
 Any malignancy, non metastatic (%) 0 (0.0) 25,630 (28.3) 885 (18.8) 1915 (64.8) <0.001
 Thromboembolism: prosthetic valve, thrombosis, embolism (%) 0 (0.0) 42 (0.0) 12 (0.3) 3 (0.1) <0.001
 Pressure Ulcer (%) 10 (0.0) 166 (0.2) 29 (0.6) 2 (0.1) <0.001
 Heart failure & Fluid overload (%) 936 (0.5) 4880 (5.4) 811 (17.2) 40 (1.4) <0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease (%) 655 (0.4) 3223 (3.6) 372 (7.9) 25 (0.8) <0.001
 Metastatic disease (%) 6 (0.0) 181 (0.2) 16 (0.3) 1151 (39.0) <0.001
  1. aBased on ICD codes in the preceding 5 years. Abbreviations: end stage renal failure (ESRF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), KDIGO chronic kidney disease stage 5 (CKD-5). Numbers were presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%) as appropriate