Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 General characteristics of the included systematic reviews

From: The determinants and consequences of adult nursing staff turnover: a systematic review of systematic reviews

Author(s) (year) Aim(s) Research question(s) Selection criteria used to include primary studies (PICOS) Scope Type, number, and quality of included studies as reported by the author(s) Review authors’ summary of findings
1. Geography
2. Time limit
3. Language
Chan et al. (2013) [41] To examine and describe the published empirical research on nurses’ intention to leave their current employment or the profession. P RNs working in non-specialty wards 1 International (by USA) Total number 31 The reasons for nurses’ intention to leave are complex and influenced by many factors, categorised as individual and organizational factors. Individual factors are job satisfaction, burnout and demographic factors, whereas organizational factors comprise work environment, culture, commitment, work demands and social support. This review indicates that job satisfaction is the most influential.
I determinants (aspects, factors) 2 2001–2010 Quantitative 29
C Not stated 3 English Experimental (quasi)
O Intention to leave Observational 29
S All types of peer-reviewed primary studies (no literature reviews, dissertations) Qualitative
Mix-Methods
Other 2
Quality
No details available.
Critical Review of Quantitative
Research Worksheet (Miller 2006) [51]
Coomber & Barriball (2007) [48] To explore the impact of job satisfaction components on intent to leave and turnover for hospital-based nurses. P Hospital nurses 1 International (by UK) Total number 9 From the four themes discussed, three were organisational factors (leadership, stress and pay) and only one an individual/ demographic factor (educational attainment).
I determinants 2 1997–2004 Quantitative 6 The empirical evidence shows that stress and issues concerning leadership consistently exert both direct and indirect effects on job satisfaction and intent to leave
C Not stated 3 Not stated Experimental (quasi)
O intent to leave/turnover Observational 6
S Primary and secondary research (no literature reviews) Qualitative 3
Mix-Methods
Quality
No details available.
Cowden et al. (2011) [46] To examine the relationship between managers’ leadership practices and staff nurses’ intent to stay in or to leave their current position. P Staff nurses and their managers 1 International (by Canada) Total number 23 The findings of the present study support a positive relationship between transformational leadership, supportive work environments and staff nurses intent to remain in their current position. Stated intentions to stay are strongly predictive of retention and turnover. Relational leadership styles attentive to the individual needs of the nurse promote staff nurses intentions to stay.
I determinants 2 1985–2010 Quantitative 22
C Non stated 3 English Experimental (quasi)
O Intention to stay (behavioural intention) Observational 22
S Peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative studies Qualitative
Mix-Methods 1
Other
“..All studies were rated as moderate or strong” p.468
Tool adapted from several existing frameworks (Cummings and Estabrooks 2003 [52], Wong and Cummings 2007 [53], Lee and Cummings 2008 [54])
D’Ambra & Andrews (2014) [42] To determine the impact of incivility as experienced by new graduate nurse and negative effect of incivility on retention and patient care, and identify current organisational strategies suggested by that literature to mitigate the occurrence of incivility. P Newly graduated RNs 1 International (by USA) Total number 16 The reasons for nurses’ intention to leave are complex and influenced by many factors, categorised as individual and organizational factors. Individual factors are job satisfaction, burnout and demographic factors, whereas organizational factors comprise work environment, culture, commitment, work demands and social support. This review indicates that job satisfaction is the most influential.
I Interventions to reduce workplace incivility 2 2002–2012 Quantitative 3
C 3 English Experimental (quasi)
O Recommended Observational 3
S All types of peer-reviewed primary studies (no literature reviews, dissertations) Qualitative 2
Mix-Methods
Other 11^
^very unclear/no tabulation of papers
Quality
No details available.
Tool adapted from two existing frameworks (Schmidt and Brown 2012 [55]; Fineout-Overholt and Melnyk 2009 [56]).
Flinkman et al. (2010) [11] To review and critique the published empirical research on nurses’ intention to leave the profession P RNs or nurses with different educational background 1 International (by Finland) Total number 31 A number of variables influencing nurses’ intention to leave the profession were identified, including demographic, work-related and individual-related variables. The proportion of nurses considering or intending to leave the profession varied considerably across studies.
I Determinants 2 1995-Jul 2009 Quantitative 31 The timeframe for leaving intention also varied
C Not stated 3 English, Swedish, Finnish Experimental (quasi)
O Intention to leave Observational 31
Nurses’ retention Qualitative
S Not stated (no editorials, opinions or discussions) Mix-Methods
Other
Quality
“..All studies had theoretical, methodological and measurement weaknesses.” p 1424
Cooper 1989 [57]
Li & Jones (2013) [43] To describe the conceptualization of nurse turnover, to evaluate the methodologies and calculation of costs in those studies, to identify the range of nurse turnover costs reported in the literature and offer suggestions for future study. P Any type of nursing staff member 1 International (by USA) Total number 10 Nurse turnover is costly for health-care organizations, as these costs must be paid using organizational resources and accounted for in organizational budgets. The costs of per nurse turnover ranged from $10,098 to $88,000. The ratio of nurse turnover costs relative to nurses’ salary ranged from 0.31 to 1.3. The total turnover costs also ranged from $0.55 million to $8.5 million.
I Consequences 2 1990–2010 Quantitative 10
C Not stated 3 English Experimental (quasi)
O Organisation: turnover costs Observational 10
S Not stated Qualitative
Mix-Methods
Other
Quality
“..The scores of studies ranged between 7 and 11.” (maximum achievable 14) p.407
Quality index with seven criteria adapted from Beck 1995 [58]
Schluter et al. (2008) [45] Does unresolved moral distress and poor organizational ethical climate increase nurse turnover? P Predominantly nurses in hospital settings 1 International (by Australia) Total number 9 There are a number of published articles characterized by loosely defined terms implying that poor ethical climate causes nurses to leave the profession. A systematic appraisal of these articles reveals that, …, it is not rigorously substantiated by the data presented
I determinants 2 1980–2007 Quantitative 6
C Not stated 3 English Experimental (quasi)
O Nurse turnover Observational 6
S Qualitative / quantitative primary studies (no theoretical or discussion-based articles) Qualitative 3
Mix-Methods
Other
Quality
“..Most articles were of fair quality.”p 313
Hawker et al. 2002 [59].
Toh et al. (2012) [47] The aim of this review was to establish the best available evidence regarding the relationship between the nursing shortage and nurses’ job satisfaction, stress and burnout levels in oncology/haematology settings. P RNs at inpatient and outpatient oncology/ haematology units, wards or healthcare facilities 1 International (by Singapore) Total number 7 RNs suffered from job satisfaction, stress and burnout, which ultimately led to them leaving the specialty (oncology) or profession.
I Determinants 2 1990–2010 Quantitative 7
C Not stated 3 English Experimental (quasi)
O Intention to leave current nursing position Observational 7
S Not stated Qualitative
Mix-Methods
Other
Quality
No details available.
Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) [not referenced in Toh et al.].
Wagner (2007) [44] (1) What is the predictability of organizational commitment as a variable in nursing turnover studies, (2) how do organizational commitment and job satisfaction compare as predictor variables in nursing turnover studies and (3) what is the usefulness of organizational commitment in nursing turnover research? P Nurses 1 International (by USA) Total number 23 Organizational commitment had statistically significant predictive ability in the 23 nursing turnover studies; but only 5 studies substantiated this as direct relationship. The research revealed that when using mediator variables such as intent to leave or intent to remain in turnover studies, organizational commitment is a highly desirable component. Finally, the literature demonstrated that organizational commitment is a stronger predictor of nursing turnover than is job satisfaction.
I Determinants 2 1960–2006 Quantitative 23
C 3 English Experimental (quasi)
O Turnover Observational 23
Intent to leave or intent to remain Qualitative
S Primary studies (type not stated) Mix-Methods
Other
Quality
No details available.
Not clear