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Table 3 Marketplace and HIL

From: Tobacco use and health insurance literacy among vulnerable populations: implications for health reform

Variables Lowest Deductible Highest OOPa Lowest Cost Choice if Health Services Not Needed Lowest Cost Choice if Hospitalized HIL
Tobacco Use
 Current Tobacco User −0.07
(0.05)
−0.09*
(0.05)
0.01
(0.05)
−0.08**
(0.04)
−0.22**
(0.10)
Insurance Market
 Purchase in Marketplace −0.11*
(0.05)
0.16***
(0.05)
0.02
(0.06)
0.02
(0.05)
−0.23**
(0.12)
Demographics
 Age −0.00**
(0.00)
0.01***
(0.00)
0.00
(0.00)
0.00
(0.00)
−0.01**
(0.00)
 Female 0.06
(0.05)
0.04
(0.05)
−0.02
(0.05)
0.06
(0.04)
0.14
(0.10)
Race
 African-American (ref) -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 White Non-Hispanic 0.10*
(0.05)
0.04
(0.05)
0.09
(0.06)
0.04
(0.05)
0.27**
(0.11)
 Other 0.03
(0.13)
0.15*
(0.08)
−0.03
(0.13)
0.12
(0.10)
0.27
(0.25)
Education
 Less than High School −0.05
(0.08)
0.10
(0.08)
−0.11
(0.08)
−0.10**
(0.05)
−0.16
(0.16)
 High School (Ref) -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 Some College 0.12***
(0.05)
0.06
(0.05)
0.06
(0.05)
0.03
(0.04)
0.27***
(0.10)
 Bachelors/Graduate 0.03
(0.07)
−0.01
(0.06)
0.10
(0.06)
0.01
(0.05)
0.12
(0.14)
Marital Status
 Married (ref) -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 Widowed/Divorced/Separated 0.13**
(0.05)
0.08
(0.05)
−0.03
(0.06)
0.06
(0.05)
0.24**
(0.12)
 Married 0.06
(0.06)
−0.04
(0.06)
−0.11*
(0.06)
0.01
(0.05)
−0.08
(0.12)
Type of Health Insurance
 Employer-sponsored (ref) -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 Family Plan 0.00
(0.06)
0.09*
(0.06)
0.05
(0.06)
0.00
(0.05)
0.14
(0.13)
 Individual −0.02
(0.08)
0.01
(0.08)
0.02
(0.08)
−0.06
(0.06)
−0.05
(0.16)
 Medicare 0.10
(0.07)
0.06
(0.07)
−0.01
(0.08)
0.00
(0.06)
0.15
(0.17)
 Medicaid −0.05
(0.06)
−0.06
(0.06)
−0.01
(0.06)
−0.06
(0.05)
−0.18
(0.12)
Cognitive
 Cognitive Function 0.00
(0.07)
0.04
(0.07)
−0.06
(0.08)
0.18**
(0.08)
0.17
(0.16)
 Numeracy 0.06**
(0.03)
0.08***
(0.02)
0.05*
(0.03)
0.08***
(0.02)
0.25***
(0.06)
Risk
 Gambling Risk 0.02
(0.02)
0.02
(0.02)
0.01
(0.02)
−0.01
(0.01)
0.04
(0.04)
Discounting
 Impatience 0.00
(0.01)
0.01
(0.01)
−0.01
(0.01)
−0.01
(0.01)
0
(0.03)
Health
 High Utilizer 0.01
(0.04)
−0.06
(0.04)
0.08*
(0.05)
0.01
(0.03)
0.03
(0.09)
Monthly Income
 $0–$720 (ref) -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 $721–$1200 0.01
(0.05)
0.07
(0.05)
0.07
(0.06)
0.00
(0.04)
0.15
(0.11)
 $1201–$2400 0.03
(0.06)
0.08
(0.06)
0.01
(0.06)
0.03
(0.05)
0.14
(0.13)
 $2401 0.06
(0.07)
−0.00
(0.06)
0.13**
(0.07)
0.02
(0.05)
0.21
(0.14)
Heath Status
 Excellent (ref) -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 Very Good 0.10*
(0.06)
0.10
(0.06)
0.03
(0.07)
0.09*
(0.05)
0.33**
(0.14)
 Good 0.12*
(0.06)
0.08
(0.06)
0.02
(0.06)
0.04
(0.05)
0.26**
(0.13)
 Fair 0.18**
(0.07)
0.03
(0.07)
−0.05
(0.07)
0.05
(0.06)
0.21
(0.16)
 Poor 0.10
(0.13)
−0.01
(0.12)
0.00
(0.13)
−0.02
(0.09)
0.07
(0.10)
Constant 0.49***
(0.11)
0.66***
(0.10)
0.32***
(0.11)
0.10
(0.08)
1.58***
(0.23)
Observations 631 631 631 631 631.00
R-squared 0.09 0.11 0.06 0.10 0.16
  1. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1
  2. The linear regression models used robust standard errors
  3. aOut-of-pocket (OOP) is the expenses for medical care that aren’t reimbursed by insurance. OOP costs include deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments for covered services plus all costs for services that aren’t covered