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Table 2 Tobacco Use and Health Insurance Literacy (n = 631)

From: Tobacco use and health insurance literacy among vulnerable populations: implications for health reform

  Total Sample Characteristics Tobacco Users Non-Tobacco Users
  Mean or Percentage Mean or Percentage Mean or Percentage
  (SD) (SD) (SD)
Health insurance literacy (range 0–4)*** 2.0 2.0 1.8
  (1.1) (1.1) (1.1)
Lowest Deductible (correct answer)* 63.6% 58.8% 65.7%
Highest OOPa (correct answer)* 63.9% 59.3% 66.0%
Lowest Cost Choice if Health Services Not Needed (correct answer) 46.0% 44.2% 46.8%
Lowest Cost Choice if Hospitalized (correct answer)*** 22.2% 15.1% 25.5%
Insurance Marketplace*** 18.4% 12.6% 21.1%
Current Tobacco Use 31.5%
Risk Taking (range 1–7)*** 1.9 2.1 1.7
  (1.2) (1.2) (1.2)
Discount Rate (range 0–4) 2.1 2.0 2.1
  (1.4) (1.4) (1.4)
Cognitive Function (range 0–1) 0.1 0.1 0.1
  (0.3) (0.3) (0.2)
Numeracy (range 0–4) 0.5 0.5 0.5
  (0.8) (0.8) (0.8)
Demographics
 Age*** 40.2 36.8 42.5
  (14.0) (12.3) (14.4)
 Race/Ethnicity
  African American 80.0% 80.9% 79.6%
  White Non-Hispanic 17.3% 16.6% 17.6%
  Other 2.7% 2.5% 2.8%
  Female 68.6% 55.3% 74.8%
 Marital Status**
  Never Married 49.0% 55.8% 45.8%
  Widowed/Divorced/Separated 26.0% 24.6% 26.6%
  Married 25.0% 19.6% 27.6%
 Education***
  Less than High School 7.5% 11.8% 36.6%
  High School 40.5% 49.0% 5.5%
  Some College 37.2% 30.7% 40.2%
  Bachelor’s/Graduate 14.8% 8.4% 17.7%
 Type of Health Insurance***
  Employer-Sponsored 30.1% 18.6% 35.4%
  Individual 10.9% 4.5% 13.9%
  Medicare 10.8% 10.1% 11.1%
  Medicaid 21.4% 24.12% 20.4%
  Uninsured 26.8% 42.7% 19.4%
High Utilizers (> 1 ED visit or >0 inpatient admissions in the past year)*** 35.4% 47.2% 30.8%
 Monthly Income***
  $0–$720 26.3% 36.7% 21.5%
  $721–$1200 26.0% 26.1% 25.9%
  $1201–$2400 21.7% 23.1% 21.1%
  $2401 26.0% 14.1% 31.5%
 Heath Status
  Excellent 16.0% 12.6% 17.6%
  Very Good 28.4% 27.6% 28.7%
  Good 33.1% 33.2% 33.1%
  Fair 19.5% 22.6% 18.1%
  Poor 3.0% 4.0% 2.6%
  1. *p < .10, **p < .05, ***p < .01
  2. aOut-of-pocket (OOP) is the expenses for medical care that aren’t reimbursed by insurance. OOP costs include deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments for covered services plus all costs for services that aren’t covered