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Table 4 Effects of Individual-Level and Community-Level Characteristics on Maternal Healthcare Service Utilization

From: Women’s autonomy and maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia

  2005 2011
  Antenatal care Place of delivery Postnatal care Antenatal care Place of delivery Postnatal care
  AOR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI)
Individual-level characteristics
Attitudes toward wife beating
 Favorable 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Opposing 1.47(1.19–1.81)* 1.27(0.99–1.63) 1.23 (0.95–1.58) 1.20(1.01–1.43)* 1.07(0.86–1.35) 1.02(0.81–1.30)
Women’s decision-making power
 Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 High 1.02(0.82–1.26) 1.06(0.83–1.36) 1.04(0.73–1.27) 1.10(0.91–1.32) 1.09(0.88–1.35) 1.04(0.76–1.22)
Age (years)
 15–24 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 25–34 1.14(0.88–1.48) 1.24(0.89–1.74) 1.27(0.92–1.76) 1.61(1.29–2.03)* 1.36(1.05–1.77)* 1.20(0.92–1.55)
 35–49 1.11(0.76–1.62) 1.36(0.86–2.14) 1.43(0.90–2.26) 2.29(1.70–3.06)* 1.57(1.06–2.33)* 1.46(1.04–2.05)*
Age at the first marriage (years)
 <16 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 16–19 1.02(0.81–1.28) 1.17(0.75–1.82) 1.22(0.95–1.58) 1.16(0.98–1.37) 0.93(0.75–1.17) 0.89(0.74–1.08)
 ≥20 1.05(0.78–1.41) 0.82(0.59–1.14) 1.02(0.75–1.39) 0.96(0.76–1.21) 1.15(0.86–1.53) 0.75(0.59–1.01)
Religion
 Orthodox Christianity 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Protestant Christianity 0.96(0.67–1.36) 1.21(0.79–1.86) 1.08(0.74–1.58) 0.75(0.56–1.01) 0.90(0.59–1.36) 0.99(0.72–1.40
 Islam 1.06(0.78–1.42) 1.38(0.93–2.05) 1.06(0.80–1.40) 1.02(0.82–1.26) 1.28(0.94–1.75) 1.00(0.79–1.30)
 Others 0.64(0.34–1.23) 4.48(0.97–6.67) 0.80(0.36–1.81) 0.70(0.41–1.18) 1.45(0.63–3.34) 0.31(0.10–1.80)
Educational level
 None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 1.10(0.87–1.37) 1.03(0.78–1.36) 1.03(0.78–1.37) 1.23(1.03–1.47)* 1.11(0.87–1.41) 1.19(0.96–1.50)
 Secondary and higher 1.91(1.35–2.79)* 1.49(1.05–2.10)* 1.88(1.33–2.65)* 2.03(1.44–2.88)* 2.45(1.65–3.64)* 2.64(1.91–3.65)*
Employment status
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.14(0.91–1.42) 1.34(1.02–1.76)* 1.20(0.93–1.54) 1.19 (1.02–1.38)* 1.08(0.88–1.32) 0.91(0.75–1.10)
Birth order
 First 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Second 0.87(0.67–1.21) 0.38(0.28–0.53)* 0.73(0.51–1.03) 0.85(0.67–1.07) 0.51(0.38–0.66)* 0.64(0.48–1.86)
 Third or higher 0.82(0.52–1.30) 0.45(0.26–0.80)* 1.09(0.64–1.83) 0.68(0.48–0.96)* 0.54(0.32–0.91)* 0.76(0.46–1.26)
Number of children in the household
 1–2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 3–4 0.69(0.45–1.07) 0.72(0.45–1.13) 0.49(0.31–0.78)* 0.81(0.59–1.12) 0.55(0.34–0.88)* 0.77(0.48–1.22)
 ≥5 0.63(0.40–0.98)* 0.46(0.28–0.74)* 0.50(0.32–0.80)* 0.72(0.52–1.01) 0.58(0.36–0.94)* 0.72(0.44–1.17)
Spouse’s educational level
 None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 1.10(0.89–1.38) 1.13(0.83–1.53) 1.40(1.02–1.91)* 1.36(1.13–1.62)* 1.39(1.06–1.82)* 1.06(0.85–1.33)
 Secondary and higher 1.67 (1.23–2.25)* 2.03(1.44–2.86)* 1.86 (1.29–2.68)* 1.66 (1.29–2.16)* 2.24 (1.65–3.05)* 1.88 (1.42–2.50)*
Media exposure
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.36(1.01–1.83)* 1.46(1.07–2.00)* 1.15(0.85–1.56) 1.65(1.39–1.96)* 1.44(1.13–1.84)* 1.48(1.20–1.82)
Wealth index
 Poorest 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Poor 1.03(0.70–1.53) 0.86(0.48–1.57) 0.84(0.48–1.46) 1.15(0.90–1.48) 0.67(0.47–1.00) 1.12(0.80–1.58)
 Middle 1.63(1.10–2.42)* 0.68(0.38–1.19) 1.05(0.64–1.84) 1.45(1.13–1.86)* 0.67(0.45–1.01) 1.05(0.72–1.52)
 Rich 1.96 (1.31–2.93)* 1.14(0.65–1.99) 1.20(0.69–2.08) 1.59(1.20–2.10)* 0.80(0.51–1.25) 1.66(1.20–2.30)*
 Richest 3.58(1.25–4.75)* 2.52(1.34–3.72)* 2.21(1.23–3.97)* 2.24(1.56–3.22)* 1.75 (1.10–2.78)* 2.22(1.46–3.37)*
Place of residence
 Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Rural 1.10(0.67–1.79) 0.42(0.23–0.77)* 0.40 (0.23–0.70)* 1.42(0.95–2.12) 0.39(0.25–0.59)* 0.41(0.28–0.59)*
Community-level characteristics
 Attitudes toward wife beatinga 1.16(1.08–1.90)* 1.17(1.13–1.89)* 1.00(0.99–1.01) 1.21(1.01–1.62)* 1.23(1.14–1.96)* 1.18(1.01–1.23)*
 Decision-making powerb 1.64(0.99–1.86) 1.02(0.98–1.07) 1.03(0.99–0.08) 1.14(1.03–1.98)* 1.00(0.98–1.00) 1.01(0.99–1.01)
 Educational levelc 1.38(1.10–1.97)* 1.31(1.05–1.79)* 1.18 (1.12–1.27)* 1.15(1.34–1.89)* 1.01(1.00–1.02)* 1.13(1.05–1.96)*
 Employmentd 1.03(0.97–1.05) 1.07(0.99–1.02) 1.03(0.99–1.08) 1.03(0.99–1.10) 1.16(1.04–1.57)* 1.09(0.99–1.01)
 Contraception usee 1.01(0.98–1.02) 1.01(0.96–1.06) 0.99(0.98–1.01) 1.06(0.99–1.01) 1.04(0.99–1.02) 1.01(0.99–1.08)
Null model
 ICC 0.42* 0.53* 0.49* 0.56* 0.77* 0.54*
 Log likelihood −2941.91 −1973.31 −2169.41 −4607.16 −2644.95 −3437.95
 AIC 4207.89 3158.65 3205.10 6051.5 4089.28 4631.05
Final model
 ICC 0.29* 0.40* 0.13* 0.21* 0.33* 0.15*
 Log likelihood −2851.82 −1830.34 −2257.77 −4487.48 −2528.63 −3484.26
 AIC 3490.96 2414.95 2537.03 5215.25 3178.29 3954.64
  1. italic * P-value <0.05
  2. aPercentage of women with opposing attitudes toward wife beating
  3. bPercentage of women with high decision-making power
  4. cPercentage of women with a primary or higher educational level
  5. dPercentage of women who were employed
  6. ePercentage of women who used contraception
  7. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient; AIC, Akaike information criterion