Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive Statistics of the Study Sample

From: Women’s autonomy and maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia

  2005 (N = 6058) % 2011 (N = 7043) %
Individual-level characteristics
Attitudes toward wife beating
 Favorable 82.3 73.7*
 Opposing 17.7 26.3
Women’s decision-making power at home
 Low 32.4 28.3*
 High 67.6 71.7
Age (years)
 15–24 26.8 25.6
 25–34 47.1 49.3
 35–49 26.0 25.1
Age at the first marriage (years)
 <16 49.4 42.2*
 16–19 33.9 38.6
 ≥20 16.7 19.2
Religion
 Orthodox 41.1 33.1*
 Protestant 18.1 19.3
 Muslim 38.2 44.6
 Others 3.6 3.0
Educational level
 No education 76.1 67.5*
 Primary 15.6 26.2
 Secondary and higher 8.3 6.3
Employment status
 No 77.1 70.1*
 Yes 22.9 29.9
Child was wanted at the time of the pregnancy
 Yes 69.6 75.4*
 No 30.4 24.6
Birth order
 First 17.1 17.6
 Second 16.0 16.8
 Third or higher 66.9 65.6
Number of children in the household
 1 or 2 38.3 39.2
 3 or 4 31.0 30.5
 ≥ 5 30.6 30.9
Spouse’s educational level
 No education 58.3 50.3*
 Primary 26.0 37.7
 Secondary and higher 15.6 12.0
Media exposure
 No 88.2 67.9*
 Yes 11.8 32.1
Wealth index
 Poorest 24.6 29.8
 Poor 18.5 17.4
 Middle 18.3 16.3
 Rich 17.1 15.8
 Richest 21.5 20.6
Place of residence
 Urban 14.7 18.6
 Rural 85.3 81.4
Outcome variables
Antenatal care
 <4 visits 82.7 77.9*
 ≥4 visits 17.3 22.1
Delivery place
 Home 86.8 83.2
 Health facility 13.4 16.6
Postnatal care
 No 89.6 86.9
 Yes 10.4 13.1
  1. * P < 0.05. Significant difference between years