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Table 8 Multivariate multiple regression results for covariates of quality of life domains

From: Economic cost and quality of life of family caregivers of schizophrenic patients attending psychiatric hospitals in Ghana

  Domains measuring quality of life   
  Physical Psychological Social Environment Joint effect
Covariates β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value F-test statistic p-value
  −0.14 −0.09 −0.06 −0.05   
Age in years (−0.22, −0.06) (−0.18, 0.002) (−0.17, 0.04) (−0.13, 0.04) 3.19 0.0133*
Sex *** ** *** *   
 Female Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Male 4.08(2.15, 6.01) 2.93(0.68, 5.17) 5.66(3.09, 8.22) 2.22(0.16, 4.28) 6.14 0.0001***
Marital status:    ***    
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Married 0.45(−1.59, 2.48) −1.73(−4.10, 0.63) −5.68(−8.38, −2.98) −2.18(−4.35, −0.02) 5.08 0.0005***
Proximity *** * * **   
 Close Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Far −5.88(−8.10, −3.66) −3.01(−5.59, −0.43) −3.57(−6.52, −0.63) −3.66(−6.02, −1.30) 6.68 0.0001***
Education *** *** * ***   
 None Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Primary/junior high school 2.20(−1.00, 5.40) 3.59(−0.13, 7.31) 6.79(2.54, 11.05) 5.24(1.83, 8.65)   
 Secondary 3.02(−0.24, 6.29) 5.12(1.33, 8.91) 5.23(0.90, 9.57) 6.53(3.06, 10.01)   
 Tertiary 7.05(3.32, 10.79) 11.04(6.69, 15.38) 9.81(4.84, 14.77) 14.55(10.57, 18.53) 12.03 0.0001***
Employment status
 None Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Private 2.41(−1.18, 6.01) 0.07(−4.11, 4.25) −1.61(−6.39, 3.16) 1.49(−2.35, 5.32)   
 Public 1.12(−2.86, 5.11) −1.79(−6.42, 2.84) −5.02(−10.32, 0.27) −1.26(−5.50,2.99)   
 Self-employed 2.81(0.06, 5.56) 1.57(−1.63, 4.76) −0.90(−4.55, 2.75) 2.86(−0.07, 5.79)   
 Student/apprentice −2.91(−8.85, 3.03) −1.61(−8.51, 5.30) −5.36(−13.25, 2.53) 1.51(−4.82, 7.84) 1.38 0.2412
Direct cost −0.003(−0.01, 0.005) −0.005(−0.014, 0.004) −0.0008(−0.01, 0.01) −0.003(−0.01, 0.01) 0.35 0.8468
Indirect cost 0.0001(−0.005, 0.005) −0.007(−0.01, −0.001) −0.001(−0.01, 0.01) −0.004(−0.01, 0.001) 1.46 0.2151
  *** ***     
Zarit −0.25(−0.38, −0.13) −0.27(−0.42, −0.12) −0.06(−0.23, 0.11) −0.10(−0.23, 0.04) 5.30 0.0004***
Duration of care given −0.003(−0.013, 0.007) −0.004(−0.02, 0.01) 0.01(−0.01, 0.02) 0.002(−0.01, 0.01) 0.85 0.4931
Daily care given time in hrs 0.14(−0.16, 0.44) 0.17(−0.18, 0.52) 0.002(−0.40, 0.40) 0.27(−0.05, 0.59) 0.63 0.6409
Other family * **     
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Yes 2.38(0.47, 4.29) 2.90(0.68, 5.12) −2.33(−4.87, 0.20) 0.56(−1.48, 2.59) 6.24 0.0001***
Anxiety   **     
 Normal Ref      
 Moderate 0.13(−2.22, 2.47) 1.29(−1.43, 4.01) 0.07(−3.04, 3.18) 0.74(−1.75, 3.24)   
 Severe −2.80(−6.48, 0.87) 5.12(0.84, 9.39) −0.18(−5.06, 4.70) 3.60(−0.31, 7.52) 4.06 0.0030**
Depression *** *** *** ***   
 Normal Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Moderate −2.73(−5.00, −0.47) −6.02(−8.66, −3.39) −3.30(−6.31, −0.29) −5.11(−7.52, −2.70)   
 Severe −8.39(−13.15, −3.64) −17.39(−22.92, −11.87) −12.29(−18.60, −5.97) −16.40(−21.47, −11.34) 19.20 0.0001***
Stress    **    
 Normal Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Moderate 2.46(−0.45, 5.36) 3.04(−0.34, 6.41) 0.30(−3.56, 4.15) 2.34(−0.76, 5.44)   
 Severe −2.44(−6.48, 1.60) −1.26(−5.96, 3.44) −10.43 (−15.80, −5.06) −1.33(−5.64, 2.988) 3.73 0.0054**
R 2 68.5 69.8 64.3 67.2   
  1. β is the estimated effect of covariate, R 2 is the adjusted coefficient off determination, CI is confidence interval; ref. is the reference category, Phy (Physical domain), Psy (Psychological domain), Soc (Social domain), Env (Environmental domain)
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001