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Table 2 Emerging themes, sub-themes and categories by cadre of health professionals

From: Perceptions about data-informed decisions: an assessment of information-use in high HIV-prevalence settings in South Africa

Facility managers (FMs) Sub-district/district/provincial/health information managers M&E and PMTCT program managers
1. Use of information
 • Selective use for reporting • Selective use of information for monitoring outcomes for political purposes; reporting and campaigns; • Selective use for reporting
• Inadequate use of data for planning purposes
  • Different perspective on data-use  
2. Barriers to information-use
 • Lack of trust in the data   • Data not trusted
 • Willingness and attitude of users
 • Lack of culture of information-use
• Lack of skill to interpret data for planning
• Lack of culture of information-use
• Packaging of information
• Lack of culture of information-use
 • Ripple effect of lack of staff at facility level   • Lack of skills to use data
 • Timeliness of feedback on information   • Lack of accountability for accurate data
3. Data quality issues
 • Perceptions of ‘poor-quality data’
 • Inaccurate information provided by patient
• Perceptions of ‘poor-quality data’ • Staff at different levels involved in several registers for one program
   • Cooperation between staff at facility level
4. Reasons for poor data quality
 a) Human resources
 • Staff attitude of non-care • Staff attitude of non-care • Three data-collection tools for one program
 • Human error in data collection
 • Work overload/staff turnover
 • Lack of trained data capturers/clerks
• Clinicians unprepared/lack of skill for data collection
• Staff rotation and turnover
• Lack of feedback/data interrogation
• Follow up issues: results not captured
• Migration of parents/mothers
• Access to/tracing all babies born into the cohort
 • Lack of ownership of RHIS process
 • Limitations of supervisory visits/monthly audit
• Lack of numeracy skills • Lack of feedback/data interrogation
• Lack of accountability
b) Equipment
 • Lack of resources and equipment for recording   
c) Validation issues
 • Lack of skills for validation • Lack of validation at facility level, burden on higher levels
• Snowball effect of non-validation at facility level
• Extent of validating and coordinating overwhelming at district level
• No proper data validation at sub-district level
d) Training
  • Structure and content of training should be interactive and experiential in nature • Experiential training/applied learning based on adult learning principles as preferred option which should be relevant, participatory, learner-centered, ownership
  • Staff turnover challenge in training