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Table 2 Change in inpatient and skilled nursing facility use among continuously enrolled members in intervention plans versus those in control plans

From: First-dollar cost-sharing for skilled nursing facility care in medicare advantage plans

  Intervention plans Control plans Difference-in-differences
  Year prior to copayment increases Change Year prior to copayment increases Change Unadjusted Adjusted (95% CI)
All Members
 Any inpatient use (%) 18.8 −1.0 15.4 1.1 −2.0 −1.6*** (−2.0, −1.2)
 Any SNF use (%) 4.0 0.0 4.1 0.6 −0.6 −0.4*** (−0.7,-0.2)
 Annual inpatient days per 100 enrollees 178.6 −11.1 105.0 8.1 −19.1 −12.1*** (−14.5,-9.7)
 Annual SNF days per 100 enrollees 157.3 −8.0 132.2 26.1 −34.2 −26.7*** (−29.7,-23.8)
Inpatients
 Any SNF use (%) 19.5 0.8 23.0 2.1 −1.3 −0.9 (−2.2, 0.3)
 Annual inpatient days per 100 hospitalized enrollees 949.9 −10.4 681.9 4.4 −14.9 8.4 (−18.0, 34.8)
 Annual SNF days per 100 hospitalized enrollees 768.3 −17.7 721.7 86.4 −104.1 −87.0***(−112.1,-61.9)
  1. Authors’ analysis of data on hospital utilization from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set and data on skilled nursing facility utilization from the Residential History File from the Minimum Data Set. SNF = Skilled nursing facility. ***p < 0.001