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Table 8 The total score of each cause of medication error

From: Using total quality management approach to improve patient safety by preventing medication error incidences**

  Scorea
I)-Causes Related Prescribing Phase
 a. New staff 9
 b. Poor handwriting orders 24
 c. Verbal order 14
 d. Unapproved abbreviations 22
 e. Understaffing 14
 f. Metric system 19
 g. Lack of knowledge on the medication 7
 h. Unnecessary decimal points 16
 i. Lack of information on the patient 11
II)-Causes Related Dispensing Phase
 j. Poor assessment of order 12
 k. Outdated references 3
 l. Labeling & packaging problems 8
 m. Poor designed Work area 9
 n. Inadequate Distribution system 9
 o. Poor inventory arrangement 4
III)-Causes Related Administration Phase
 p. Failure to follow order instructions 8
 q. Workload/fatigue 15
 r. Medication unavailable 10
 s. Inadequate checking 6
 t. Extended delay of administration due to other department (Lab levels, x-ray,.) 8
 u. Incompliant Patient 11
 v. Inadequate medication device 4
 w. Lack of information 11
 x. Drug given but not documented 13
 y. Drug documented but not given 1
IV)-Causes Related Monitoring Phase
 z. Failure to recognize adverse reactions 5
 aa. Failure to report adverse reactions 4
 bb. Failure to educate patients about potential side effects 12
 cc. Failure to use appropriate clinical or laboratory data for adequate assessment of patient response to prescribed therapy 2
 dd. Inappropriate patient behavior regarding adherence to a prescribed medication regimen 13
 ee. Failure to follow established policies and procedures 15
 ff. Policies and procedure NOT established 7
  1. aScores were calculated depending on nurses answers and notes they filled in Medication Error Causes- Data Sheet presented previousely in Table 7