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Table 6 Formulate theories through brainstorming

From: Using total quality management approach to improve patient safety by preventing medication error incidences**

1. Abbreviations 31. Labeling (hospital’s)
2. Blanket orders 32. Leading zero missing
3. Brand names look alike 33. Measuring device inaccurate/inappropriate
4. Brand names sound alike 34. Monitoring inadequate/lacking
5. Brand/generic names look alike
6. Brand/generic names sound alike
35. Non-formulary drug
36. Non-metric units used
7. Calculation error 37. Packaging/container Design
8. Communication 38. Patient identification failure
9. Contraindicated, drug allergy 39. Preprinted order form
10. Contraindicated, drug/ drug
11. Contraindicated, drug/ food
40. Performance (human) deficit
41. Procedure/Protocol not followed
12. Contraindicated in disease 42. Pump, failure/malfunction
13. Contraindicated in pregnancy/breastfeeding 43. Pump, improper use
14. Decimal point 44. Reconciliation-admission
15. Diluents wrong 45. Reconciliation-discharge
16. Dispensing device involved 46. Reconciliation-transition
17. Documentation inaccurate/lacking 47. Reference material confusing/inaccurate
18. Dosage form confusion 48. Repackaging by hospital
19. Drug distribution system 49. Repackaging by other facility
20. Drug shortage 50. Similar packaging/labeling
21. Equipment design confusing/inadequate 51. Similar products
22. Equipment (not pumps) failure/malfunction 52. Storage proximity
23. Generic names look alike 53. System safeguards inadequate
24. Generic names sound alike 54. Transcription inaccurate /omitted
25. Handwriting illegible/ unclear 55. Unlabeled syringe/container
26. Incorrect medication activation 56. Verbal order confusing/incomplete
27. Information management system 57. Weight missing/inaccurate
28. Knowledge deficit/training Insufficient 58. Written order confusing/incomplete
29. Label (manufacturer’s) design 59. Workflow disruption
30. Label (hospital’s) design