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Table 8 Annual costs in Norwegian krone (Norway)

From: Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

Costs in NOK, mean (95% CI) CKD 1–3 (n = 64) CKD 4–5 (n = 55) Dialysis (n = 61) Transplant (n = 63) P value
Direct costs 38,676 (18,712–69,343) 80,145 (51,159–118,538) 851,277 (765,334–959,286) 185,108 (131,915–251,557) <0.0001
Hospitalisations 12,898 (4387–28,610) 33,291 (13,098–66,704) 138,766 (93,249–195,108) 65,036 (32,637–109,347) <0.0001
Outpatient care visits 4425 (3355–5859) 8085 (6588–10,612) 12,050 (8956–15,673) 12,840 (10,094–16,706) <0.0001
Primary care visits 691 (345–1224) 1205 (246–3192) 507 (145–1594) 351 (140–772) .5094
Surgical procedures 4209 (89–15,018) 23,660 (10,359–40,439) 106,888 (67,415–153,360) 6798 (1790–14,265) <0.0001
Diagnostic tests 1652 (1100–2273) 1959 (1417–2622) 6423 (5132–8002) 3359 (2450–4587) <0.0001
Home care/medical assistance 12,317 (48–36,245) 885 (66–2396) 14,151 (5074–27,170) 3090 (359–9872) .0002
Routine dialysis care 495,052 (468,607–518,867) 16,131 (4245–32,431) <0.0001
Haemodialysis transportation 32,460 (25,631–39,573) 128 (0–256) <0.0001
Drug use 2483 (1472–3707) 11,060 (8445–14,068) 44,980 (39,925–51,304) 77,375 (64,093–95,936) <0.0001
 Antihypertensives 530 (435–640) 715 (621–808) 522 (433–617) 567 (461–687) .02459
 Phosphate binders 1158 (565–1850) 8072 (6345–9932) 418 (102–944) <0.0001
 ESAs 36 (0–148) 2036 (778–3600) 14,079 (11,772–16,055) 2086 (827–3610) <0.0001
 Analgesics for kidney pain 16 (6–31) 103 (33–251) 104 (29–256) 33 (3–98) .1053
 Vitamin D analogues 1833 (857–3090) 6360 (4761–8104) 12,170 (11,121–12,991) 4200 (2861–5722) <0.0001
 Immunosupressants 2741 (290–6569) 69,324 (56,582–87,711) <0.0001
 Other drugs 68 (19–164) 688 (181–1422) 7292 (5804–8788) 746 (353–1326) <0.0001
Indirect costs 111,441 (70,268–157,539) 204,324 (143,043–268,451) 215,588 (144,283–280,047) 182,164 (125,099–242,812) .0604
Productivity loss 110,892 (70,085–157,480) 199,644 (139,793–263,028) 197,961 (129,783–259,106) 180,251 (123,425–241,038) .2452
Informal care 548 (0–1645) 4680 (1603–9442) 17,627 (7001–35,752) 1913 (761–3473) <0.0001
Total costs 150,117 (104,759–202,958) 284,469 (206,680–373,107) 1,066,865 (950,458–1,204,094) 367,272 (278,949–466,269) <0.0001
  1. P values calculated with Kruskal–Wallis test
  2. NOK Norwegian krone, ESA erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, CI confidence interval (bias corrected)