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Table 6 Annual costs in Danish krone (Denmark)

From: Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

Costs in DKK, mean (95% CI) CKD 1–3 (n = 64) CKD 4–5 (n = 55) Dialysis (n = 61) Transplant (n = 63) P value
Direct costs 28,022 (14,728–50,835) 47,203 (35,863–63,990) 667,362 (623,398–720,640) 196,114 (159,055–237,980) <0.0001
Hospitalisations 4736 (1611–10,505) 12,224 (4810–24,391) 50,954 (34,240–71,642) 23,881 (12,072–40,151) <0.0001
Outpatient care visits 5596 (3810–7867) 9483 (6889–14,515) 15,802 (11,175–21,341) 14,219 (10,992–18,453) <0.0001
Primary care visits 1558 (779–2761) 2719 (712–7252) 1144 (163–2942) 791 (317–1741) .5094
Surgical procedures 2183 (125–7519) 6938 (2660–13,242) 31,596 (18,141–50,394) 4228 (1812–7559) <0.0001
Diagnostic tests 1591 (1055–2225) 1803 (1239–2542) 6081 (4851–7544) 3464 (2374–5095) <0.0001
Home care/medical assistance 9838 (38–28,949) 717 (62–1940) 12,399 (4417–23,648) 2503 (313–7919) .0001
Routine dialysis care 441,221 (417,652–462,446) 14,377 (3783–28,905) <0.0001
Haemodialysis transportation 41,146 (33,117–49,306) 214 (0–1068) <0.0001
Drug use 2520 (1404–3856) 13,318 (9605–17,716) 67,020 (57,869–79,028) 132,438 (110,082–158,657) <0.0001
 Antihypertensives 391 (295–507) 476 (394–559) 343 (272–420) 401 (303–534) .0560
 Phosphate binders 1351 (656–2160) 10,551 (8212–13,158) 521 (123–1242) <0.0001
 ESAs 60 (0–245) 3366 (1286–5953) 23,281 (19,497–26,558) 3449 (1459–6102) <0.0001
 Analgesics for kidney pain 17 (5–39) 90 (21–253) 182 (26–534) 13 (2–37) .1069
 Vitamin D analogues 2004 (937–3379) 6955 (5201–8861) 13,309 (12,162–14,207) 4593 (3129–6257) <0.0001
 Immunosupressants 5699 (312–14,111) 122,984 (100,943–149,412) <0.0001
 Other drugs 48 (11–110) 1081 (157–2500) 13,655 (10,825–16,513) 477 (194–932) <0.0001
Indirect costs 51,523 (32,278–75,631) 94,631 (65,117–126,721) 100,970 (67,789–132,323) 81,688 (55,334–110,676) .0726
Productivity loss 51,224 (31,835–75,332) 92,083 (63,079–123,547) 91,373 (59,420–122,164) 80,647 (54,460–109,503) .3032
Informal care 299 (0–896) 2548 (873–5141) 9597 (3801–19,465) 1041 (415–1891) <0.0001
Total costs 79,544 (54,826–109,204) 141,834 (105,601–181,449) 768,332 (707,301–830,831) 277,802 (227,251–333,023) <0.0001
  1. P values calculated with Kruskal–Wallis test
  2. DKK Danish krone, ESA erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, CI confidence interval (bias corrected)