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Table 3 Differences between restricted and non-restricted cohorts in the identified studies

From: A systematic review of the effectiveness of policies restricting access to pregabalin

  Margolis et al., 2009 [27 Margolis, et al., 2010 [28] Bazalo et al., 2010 [26] Udall et al., 2014 [30] Suehs et al., 2014 [31] Placzek et al., 2014 [29] Null et al., 2016 [32] Martin et al., 2016 [33]
Pregabalin utilization Significantly lower utilization in restricted cohort (P < 0.01) Significantly lower utilization in restricted cohort (P < 0.001) Not applicable (modeling) Significantly lower utilization in restricted cohort (P = 0.008) Significantly lower utilization in restricted cohort (P < 0.001) No significant difference in utilization in either pDPN (P = 0.731) or FM (P = 0.192) Significant increase in commercial plans before (P < 0.001), but decrease after (P < 0.001) ST started. Small numeric decrease after ST lifted (P = 0.568) Significant decrease with mail order, and increase without (P < 0.001)
All-cause pharmacy costs Not evaluated Not evaluated Not evaluated No significant differences in costs (P = 0.197) No significant differences in costs (P = 0.14) No significant differences in cost for either FM (P = 0.835) or pDPN (P = 0.846) Not evaluated No significant differences in costs (P = 0.888)
All-cause healthcare costs Not evaluated Not evaluated Not evaluated Significantly higher ($1222) in restricted cohort (P = 0.016) No significant difference in costs (P = 0.35) No significant differences in costs for either FM (P = 0.667) or pDPN (P = 0.625) Not evaluated No significant difference (P = 0.474)
Disease-related pharmacy costs Significantly higher ($274) in restricted cohort (P < 0.001) No significant differences in costs (P = 0.25) Potential savings in the restricted plan were < 2% No significant differences in costs (P = 0.120) Significantly higher ($12) in restricted cohort (P < 0.001) No significant differences in costs for either FM (P = 0.948) or pDPN (P = 0.946) Not evaluated Not evaluated
Disease-related total healthcare costs Significantly higher ($418) in restricted cohort (P < 0.01) No significant differences in costs (P = 0.41) Not evaluated Significantly higher ($859) in restricted cohort (P = 0.002) No significant differences in cost (P = 0.23) No significant differences in cost for either FM (P = 0.419) or pDPN (P = 0.431) Significantly lower (Medicare, P < 0.001) after ST start, but with a rising trend over the analysis period Not evaluated
  1. Abbreviations: FM fibromyalgia, PA prior authorization, pDPN painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, PHN postherpetic neuralgia, ST step therapy