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Table 2 Synthesis of data: coding and categories

From: Barriers to utilization of postnatal care at village level in Klaten district, central Java Province, Indonesia

Categories Mother and family members’ health literacy Social power, cultural belief and practices Health service response
Sub-categories Knowledge Practice Awareness and confidence Social power Cultural belief and practices Working load and capacity of midwives Perceived low quality of postnatal care Suboptimal patient-centered care
Codes Knowledge on postnatal period;
Knowledge of danger signs;
Lack of knowledge on safe self-treatment.
Lack of hygiene;
Delay to conduct postnatal care visit;
Lack skills to do wound-care.
Lack of confidence to do self-wound care;
Attitude to food taboo;
Submissive to the midwife’s advice.
Information from family;
Information from neighbors;
Information from parents;
Submissive to what parents said;
Feeling afraid of parents/ grandmothers;
Feeling afraid to disobey parents/grandmothers’ advice;
Living with parents.
Traditional rules;
Intergeneration practice;
Cultural self-treatment practice;
Practices from grandmothers;
Food taboo;
Herbal potion;
Breastfeeding booster potion;
Unseen hazards.
Working load;
Collaboration between village midwives and health cadres;
Knowledge of midwives;
Education on food taboo.
Timely service;
Availability of midwives;
Insuficient time to educate patients;
Lack of education on breastfeeding;
No information for next visit;
No education to family;
Perceived quality of service;
Inconsistent home-visit;
Selective care;
Inadequate education for wound care;
Indirect communication between midwives and mothers.
Lack of interactive communication;
Lack of frank communication;
Language barrier;
Inconvenient treatment.