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Table 1 Examples of coding processes

From: Barriers to utilization of postnatal care at village level in Klaten district, central Java Province, Indonesia

Meaning Unit Code Sub-category Category
I visited the midwife’s clinic only after I got infection, not before that (Mother 8). Knowledge on danger signs Knowledge Mother and family members’ health literacy
Many mothers believe in food taboo...They are also afraid to do self-wound care...(Midwife 1). Attitude to food taboo
Lacking confidence to do self-wound care
Awareness and confidence
The midwife gave the advice to visit the village health clinic before 7 days, but I did it after 10 days (Mother 6). Delay to conduct postnatal care visit Practice
I informed my daughters about the traditional rules. She is submissive to my suggestions. She should not eat peanuts and fish if her wound has not dry enough unless she will get an infection. When I delivered my daughter a long time ago, I eat fish and then my daughter’s cord got infection (Family 1). Feeling afraid to against parents/grandmothers’ advice Social power Social power, cultural belief and practices
Food taboo Cultural belief and practice
I am aware that it should be home visit but in case that I felt that the patients visited me at the clinic, I perceived that that was a home visit (Midwife 3). Inconsistent home visit Provider work load and capacity Health service responses
I received only wound care...Maybe because my condition was good. My blood pressure was high only when I delivered the baby, after that my blood pressure was normal (Mother 7). Selective care Perceived low quality of postnatal care
I did not understand what the the widwife said. She said some sentences in the Javanese language, the high-level Javanese level that I did not really understand (Mother 1). Language barrier Suboptimal patient-centered care