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Table 3 Barriers to case reporting at the practitioner and government/public sector end as identified by the studies

From: From habits of attrition to modes of inclusion: enhancing the role of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance

A Barriers to reporting: practitioner end n %
1 Knowledge
  Lack of information what, how, where to report /unfamiliarity on reporting process/system [15, 16, 30, 33, 37, 49, 51, 53] 8 (20%)
2 Attitudes
  Motivation [11, 14, 51, 59] and lethargy [15] 5(12.5%)
  Should be financially reimbursed [15, 27] 2 (5%)
  Disease reporting not considered a priority [51] 1 (2.5%)
3 Perceptions
  Patient confidentiality [14, 15, 30, 34, 37, 53, 56] 8 (20%)
  Legal issues [14, 15, 33, 51] 4 (10%)
  Complicated reporting systems [37, 51, 53] 3 (7.5%)
  Fear of losing patients [16, 28] 2 (5%)
  Beyond scope of clinicians responsibilities /No obvious benefit [11, 51] 2 (5%)
  Misconception about reporting procedures [30] 1 (2.5%)
  Appear foolish if misdiagnosed [15] 1 (2.5%)
  Fear notification may trigger further investigations [15] 1 (2.5%)
4 Practice
  Infrastructure issues such as human (adequate and skilled, staff turnover) resources and equipment resources [14, 17, 27, 31, 32, 48, 50, 51, 58] 9 (22.5%)
  Lack of time/additional burden [14,15,16,17, 33, 34, 53] 7 (17.5%)
  Lack of reporting forms/registers [15, 37] impractical design [15] 3 (7.5%)
  No lab or technician [11, 26, 48] 3 (7.5%)
  Cost of reporting [59] 1 (2.5%)
B Barriers to reporting: government and public sector end n %
  Lack of clear instructions/inadequate dissemination of guidelines/no assistance with reporting procedures, supervision or feedback etc. [14, 22, 24, 33, 34, 43, 46, 48, 51] 9 (22.5%)
  Lack of cooperation/coordination/collaborative environment/positive dialogue (Govt. and private sectors) [14, 22, 30, 37, 46, 48, 51] 7 (17.5%)
  Lack of leadership/strong and proactive administration [28, 31, 34, 48, 55, 59] 6 (15%)
  No punitive action or regulation [11, 22, 30, 53] (separate regulatory function from service provision [27]) 5 (12.5%)
  Non-involvement of range of private healthcare providers [11, 22, 27] 3 (7.5%)
  Other (Red tapism [33], lack of simplified system [37] 2 (5%)