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Table 2 Overview of the supporting studies

From: From habits of attrition to modes of inclusion: enhancing the role of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance

No Author, Year Country Main findings and recommendations
1 Arora and Gupta, 2002 India • Formats for record keeping at a private health facility should be simple and concise
• Laboratories should be identified within or in the vicinity of private health facilities.
• Expertise enhanced via appropriate training programs
• Multiple awareness-campaigns are necessary
• State must provide incessant administrative and a financial support to both public and private sectors
2 Chitkara et al. 2013 India • Limited awareness in private sector with regards to reporting
• Interaction with professional bodies
• Stronger collaboration between governments and professional bodies and the private sector
• Sensitizing private sector through professional body meetings
• Dissemination of information through professional body publications
• Online reporting platform
• Integrated voice recording and SMS reporting
• Inculcate confidence
3 Dewan et al. 2006 India • Private sector involvement in surveillance is feasible and cost-effective
• Professional societies such as Indian Medical Association are essential partners in bringing together public and private sectors
• Advocacy, training, supervision are necessary to maintain interest of the private sector
4 Kirsch & Harvey, 1994 Global • Private practitioners fail to report cases because of ignorance on reporting requirements and procedures
• Patient confidentiality
• Perceptions that reporting is time consuming, motivation and excessive workloads
• Reasons are similar to public sector
• Underfunding, under staffing and lack of supervision main determinants for under reporting
• Remove obstacles to reporting
• Only relevant data to be collected, checklist rather than forms
• Clear contact person
• Incentives in form of recognition from professional bodies, free laboratory reagents, journal subscriptions etc.
5 Lei et al. 2015 Global • Multiple collaborative mechanisms promote case detection, confirmation and reporting
• Incentives e.g. free tests and drugs are useful approach to improve private sector participation
• Regulations should be enforced punishment for non reporting also adopted
• Compulsory to improve the knowledge, consciousness and behavior of the practitioners
• Training courses should enforce an exam that needs to be passed
• Better governance from the program managers and the government
• Lack of communication and mistrust reduces mutual understanding between the public and private sectors
6 Revankar, 2004 India • Simplify guidelines
• Provide technical assistance to the practitioners
• Provide financial assistance for capacity building within the private sector
• Establishing partnerships is difficult sustaining them even bigger challenge
• Heavy inputs from the governments necessary
• Motivation and interests of the private practitioners difficult to monitor and sustain
7 Nagaraja et al. 2014 Global • Raise awareness amongst private practitioners regarding surveillance
• Regular media campaigns and advocacy to sustain interest
• Strong regulatory and punitive action for non reporting
• Including private sector without legal back up is difficult
• Governments should consider providing infrastructural support such as handheld devices
• Use friendly and simple notification as per practitioner preference
• Varied reporting formats to be accepted simple web based application, SMA, toll free number or paper based reporting as per practitioner preference
8 Uplekar et al. 2001 Global • Sensitization of the private sector essential
• Training is essential to improve case detection, confirmation and notification
• Signing of Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and letter of agreements
• Concerted efforts sustained overtime necessary
9 Uplekar, 2003 Global • Improved role for the government in providing information, regulation and financing of trainings for private sector
• Revamping UG and PG medical curricula to enhance record keeping practices
• Teaching hospitals as essential links between public and private sectors
• Telephone line and onsite visits for trouble shooting
• Bilateral visits to understand the work of the other (public and private sectors)
• Mutual respect, working through consensus and inclusion of private sector in policy making can improve compliance
• Problems identified
Public sector: lack of will to take on private sector, preoccupied with several programs, believe eventually patients will come to them, little common ground for collaboration with heterogeneous, unregulated private sector, in the absence of regulation view them as unmanageable
Private sector: absence of information, do not agree with national guidelines as they ate not a part of making them, critical of distrust shown towards them, reluctant to loose their patients
10 WHO, 2015 Global • NGOs and private labs are useful intermediary institutions
• Public and private partnerships can be win-win partnerships for all stakeholder when implemented well
• Include private sector on discussion boards of national committees
• Monthly face to face meetings build trust
• Mandatory regulations to ensure compliance
• Professional bodies and role models can be used to improve practitioner reporting