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Table 3 T-test to compare composite scores in 2012 to scores in 2015

From: Improving patient safety culture in Saudi Arabia (2012–2015): trending, improvement and benchmarking

  2012 2015 P-value
Mean SD Mean SD  
Frequency of Event Reporting 3.64 1.16 4.04 1.54 <0.001
Overall Perceptions of Safety 3.43 0.59 3.60 1.56 <0.001
Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting safety 3.46 0.65 3.57 1.34 <0.001
Organizational Learning-Continuous Improvement 3.89 0.69 4.16 1.14 <0.001
Teamwork Within Hospital Units 3.85 0.75 4.04 0.71 <0.001
Communication Openness 3.25 0.85 3.45 1.08 <0.001
Feedback and Communication About Errors 3.73 0.95 4.11 1.10 <0.001
Non-punitive Response to Error 2.68 0.81 2.76 1.26 0.013
Staffing 2.84 0.62 3.02 1.19 <0.001
Hospital Management Support for Patient Safety 3.69 0.76 3.85 1.05 <0.001
Hospital Handoffs and Transitions 3.36 0.79 3.82 2.29 <0.001
Teamwork Across Hospital Units 3.52 0.71 3.76 1.36 <0.001