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Table 2 Characteristics of the study cohort living with diabetes and factors associated with the risk of being a chronic frequent ED user (CFU)

From: Factors associated with chronic frequent emergency department utilization in a population with diabetes living in metropolitan areas: a population-based retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Total, n (%) Non-CFUs, n (%) CFUs, n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Age-sex adj. OR* (95% CI) Fully adj. OR (95% CI)
Total, n (%) 62,316 (100) 60,710 (97.4) 1606 (2.6)
Sex
 Male 30,938 (49.6) 30,457 (50.2) 685 (42.6) Ref Ref Ref
 Female 31,378 (50.4) 30,253 (49.8) 921 (57.4) 1.34 (1.21–1.48) 1.34 (1.21–1.48) 1.27 (1.14–1.41)
Age group
 30–54 years 14,801 (22.6) 13,618 (22.4) 463 (28.8) Ref Ref Ref
 55–64 years 14,949 (24.0) 14,646 (24.1) 303 (18.9) 0.61 (0.52–0.70) 0.62 (0.53–0.71) 0.62 (0.53–0.72)
 65–74 years 16,214 (26.0) 15,803 (26.0) 411 (25.6) 0.76 (0.67–0.88) 0.76 (0.67–0.87) 0.76 (0.66–0.88)
 75 + years 17,072 (27.4) 16,643 (27.4) 429 (26.7) 0.76 (0.66–0.87) 0.73 (0.64–0.84) 0.73 (0.62–0.85)
Material deprivation 22,239 (35.7) 21,551 (35.5) 688 (42.8) 1.36 (1.23–1.51) 1.34 (1.21–1.48) 1.28 (1.16–1.42)
Social deprivation 32,054 (51.4) 31,089 (51.2) 965 (60.1) 1.43 (1.30–1.59) 1.42 (1.28–1.57) 1.28 (1.15–1.42)
Affiliation to a GP 37,227 (59.7) 36,383 (59.9) 844 (52.6) 0.74 (0.67–0.82) 0.77 (0.69–0.85) 0.81 (0.73–0.89)
Visit to an endocrinologist 11,941 (19.2) 11,605 (19.1) 336 (20.9) 1.12 (0.99–1.26) 1.09 (0.96–1.23) 1.10 (0.97–1.25)
Visit to an ophthalmologist 22,974 (36.9) 22,404 (36.9) 570 (35.5) 0.94 (0.85–1.04) 0.96 (0.87–1.07) 1.00 (0.90–1.12)
Visit to an internist 10,480 (16.8) 10,154 (16.7) 326 (20.3) 1.27 (1.12–1.44) 1.29 (1.14–1.45) 1.07 (0.94–1.21)
Substance abuse 2665 (4.3) 2457 (4.1) 208 (13.0) 3.53 (3.03–4.10) 3.60 (3.09–4.19) 2.04 (1.71–2.43)
Dementia 4011 (6.4) 3849 (6.3) 162 (10.1) 1.66 (1.40–1.96) 1.74 (1.47–2.07) 0.61 (0.50–0.75)
Other mental disorder 13,967 (22.4) 13,305 (21.9) 662 (41.2) 2.50 (2.26–2.76) 2.41 (2.17–2.67) 1.91 (1.72–2.13)
Hospitalization in 2006 28,664 (46.0) 27,655 (45.6) 1009 (62.8) 2.02 (1.82–2.24) 2.10 (1.89–2.33) 1.03 (0.89–1.19)
Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI)
 0 32,716 (52.5) 32,226 (53.1) 490 (30.5) Ref Ref Ref
 1 10,959 (17.6) 10,601 (17.5) 358 (22.3) 2.22 (1.94–2.55) 2.39 (2.08–2.74) 1.56 (1.31–1.86)
 2 7937 (12.7) 7694 (12.7) 243 (15.1) 2.08 (1.78–2.43) 2.38 (2.04–2.80) 1.77 (1.42–2.21)
 3 + 10,704 (17.2) 10,189 (16.8) 515 (32.1) 3.32 (2.93–3.77) 3.96 (3.47–4.52) 2.21 (1.63–2.99)
Complications of diabetes 22,778 (36.6) 21,982 (36.2) 796 (49.6) 1.73 (1.57–1.91) 1.78 (1.61–1.97) 1.08 (0.96–1.23)
High blood pressure 27,639 (44.4) 26,791 (44.1) 848 (52.8) 1.42 (1.28–1.56) 1.51 (1.36–1.68) 0.99 (0.88–1.11)
Dyslipidemia 12,640 (20.3) 12,186 (20.1) 454 (28.3) 1.57 (1.40–1.75) 1.65 (1.48–1.84) 0.95 (0.84–1.08)
Injury 24,845 (39.9) 23,943 (39.4) 902 (56.2) 1.97 (1.78–2.17) 1.96 (1.78–2.17) 1.71 (1.54–1.89)
COPD 7657 (12.3) 7161 (11.8) 496 (30.9) 3.34 (3.00–3.72) 3.34 (3.00–3.73) 2.01 (1.75–2.30)
CVD 14,513 (23.3) 13,955 (23.0) 558 (34.7) 1.78 (1.61–1.98) 2.00 (1.80–2.23) 1.11 (0.95–1.28)
Cancer 7467 (12.0) 7247 (11.9) 220 (13.7) 1.17 (1.01–1.35) 1.24 (1.08–1.44) 0.78 (0.64–0.96)
Renal disease 7575 (12.2) 7231 (11.9) 344 (21.4) 2.02 (1.78–2.28) 2.18 (1.93–2.47) 1.08 (0.90–1.30)
Liver disease 2422 (3.9) 2282 (3.8) 140 (8.7) 2.44 (2.05–2.92) 2.47 (2.06–2.95) 1.27 (1.04–1.56)
Connective tissue dis 1298 (2.1) 1253 (2.1) 45 (2.8) 1.37 (1.01–1.85) 1.34 (0.99–1.82) 0.94 (0.69–1.29)
Ulcer disease 1041 (1.7) 989 (1.6) 52 (3.2) 2.02 (1.52–2.68) 2.11 (1.59–2.80) 1.27 (0.94–1.70)
  1. *Adjusted only for age and sex. For the variables age and sex, the model is adjusted for the other variable
  2. Adjusted for all variables of Table 2