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Table 3 Interrupted time series analysis of the effect of the over-the-counter drug policy on number of monthly outpatient visits for acute upper respiratory infections, dyspepsia, and migraine

From: Deregulation of sale of over-the-counter drugs outside of pharmacies in the Republic of Korea: interrupted-time-series analysis of outpatient visits before and after the policy

  Acute upper respiratory infections Dyspepsia Migraine
Estimation Standard error p-value Estimation Standard error p-value Estimation Standard error p-value
Trend −0.0003* 0.0001 <.0001 0.0101* 0.0005 <.0001 0.0057* 0.0003 <.0001
Intervention
 Yes 0.0026 0.0017 0.1307 −0.0216 0.0194 0.2651 −0.0314* 0.0151 0.037
 No Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
Trend after intervention 0.0002 0.0002 0.3416 −0.007* 0.0021 0.0007 0.0019 0.0016 0.2497
Sex
 Male −0.0137* 0.0015 <.0001 −0.2174* 0.0144 <.0001 −0.4796* 0.0149 <.0001
 Female Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
Age
 less than 30 0.568* 0.0107 <.0001 1.2492* 0.0406 <.0001 1.0934* 0.0429 <.0001
 30–39 0.4174* 0.0108 <.0001 1.1252* 0.0422 <.0001 1.4585* 0.0426 <.0001
 40–49 0.3975* 0.0108 <.0001 0.8341* 0.0426 <.0001 1.344* 0.0427 <.0001
 50–59 0.3842* 0.0109 <.0001 0.462* 0.0433 <.0001 1.0162* 0.0429 <.0001
 60–69 0.3177* 0.0113 <.0001 0.0865* 0.0438 0.0484 0.5039* 0.0441 <.0001
 70–79 0.1888* 0.0115 <.0001 −0.0287 0.0448 0.5216 0.1723* 0.0451 0.0001
 80 or more Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
Insurance
 Self-employed insured Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
 employee insured 0.0004 0.0062 0.9423 0.0868* 0.0424 0.0406 0.1812* 0.0406 <.0001
 Medicaid 0.0215* 0.0063 0.0006 0.1346* 0.0438 0.0021 0.1915* 0.042 <.0001
Income
 Q1(Low) −0.0459* 0.0024 <.0001 −0.2681* 0.0225 <.0001 −0.1883* 0.0198 <.0001
 Q2 −0.0407* 0.002 <.0001 −0.2768* 0.0183 <.0001 −0.2068* 0.017 <.0001
 Q3 0.0047* 0.0016 0.0043 −0.185* 0.0167 <.0001 −0.1625* 0.0154 <.0001
 Q4(High) Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
Region
 Urban 0.0646* 0.0015 <.0001 0.5416* 0.0137 <.0001 0.5124* 0.013 <.0001
 Rural Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
Type of hospital
 General hospital −0.0509* 0.0071 <.0001 −0.0013* 0.0385 <.0001 −0.0149* 0.0275 <.0001
 Hospital −0.0132* 0.0047 <.0001 −0.0062* 0.0284 <.0001 −0.058* 0.0208 <.0001
 Clinic −0.002* 0.0044 <.0001 0.1791* 0.0245 <.0001 −0.0505* 0.0184 <.0001
 Others Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
Admission in last month
 Yes Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
 No 0.0262* 0.0031 <.0001 −0.2025* 0.0257 <.0001 −0.1626* 0.0197 <.0001
Season
 Spring 0.0113* 0.0009 <.0001 0.0046 0.0102 0.654 0.0762* 0.0075 <.0001
 Summer −0.0801* 0.0011 <.0001 0.0147 0.011 0.181 0.136* 0.008 <.0001
 Fall −0.0065* 0.0009 <.0001 −0.0495* 0.0106 <.0001 0.0512* 0.0076 <.0001
 Winter Ref. - - Ref. - - Ref. - -
  1. *: p-value < 0.05; All covariates are adjusted