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Table 4 Predictors of delay in presentation of 158 new patients with OSSN, sub-divided into quartiles

From: Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya

Factor 0.4–3.2 months (N = 38) 3.3–7.0 months (N = 41) 7.1–15.6 months (N = 40) 15.7–190.5 months (N = 39) Univariate ordered proportional OR (95% CI) p- value Adjusted ordered proportional OR (95% CI) p- value
Distance from home (in 10 km units) to first health facility or study center, mean(SD) 7.1 (10.2) 6.3 (8.2) 4.3 (5.0) 6.6 (9.6) 0.99 (0.95–1.02) 0.53  
Total cost of care (in 100Ksh units), mean (SD) 41.0 (6.0) 40.0 (5.0) 42.2 (15.9) 42.9 (8.4) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.32   
Care pathway followed, No (%)       <0.001   <0.001
 Direct 27 (30.7) 25 (28.4) 19 (21.6) 17 (19.3) 1.00 (REF)   1.00 (REF))  
 1 facility visited 11 (19.6) 15 (26.8) 18 (32.1) 12 (21.4) 1.56 (0.85–2.83)   1.38 (0.75–2.54)  
 2 or more facilities visited 0 1 (7.1) 3 (21.4) 10 (74.1) 12.93 (3.79–44.06)   13.03 (3.78–44.94)  
Sex, No. (%)         0.01
 Male 18 (32.1) 18 (32.1) 12 (21.4) 8 (14.3) 1.00 (REF) 1.00 (REF)  
 Female 20 (19.6) 23 (23.6) 28 (27.5) 31 (30.4) 2.29 (1.27–4.15) 0.006 2.31 (1.25–4.24)  
Age, mean(SD) y 42 (13.0) 40 (11.8) 46 (13.6) 39 (8.3) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.69  
Marital status, No. (%)       0.59  
 Single 2 (8.0) 11 (44.4) 3 (12.0) 9 (36.0) 1.00 (REF)    
 Married 28 (26.9) 24 (23.1) 31 (29.8) 21 (20.2) 0.60 (0.28–1.31)    
 Divorced or Separated 1 (11.1) 5 (55.6) 1 (11.0) 2 (22.2) 061 (0.17–2.26)    
 Widowed 7 (35.0) 1 (5.0) 5 (25.0) 7 (35.0) 0.81 (0.27–2.45)    
Highest education level, No. (%)       0.23  
 Completed secondary or higher 14 (20.9) 19 (28.4) 15 (22.4) 19 (28.4) 1.00 (REF)    
 Completed primary or some secondary 12 (20.7) 16 (27.6) 14 (24.1) 16 (27.6) 1.01 (0.54–1.89)    
 None or some primary 12 (36.4) 6 (18.2) 11 (33.3) 4 (12.1) 0.55 (0.26–1.17)    
Occupation, No. (%)       0.95  
 High income 3 (21.4) 3 (21.4) 6 (42.9) 2 (14.3) 1.00 (REF)    
 Low-Medium income 31 (24.4) 35 (27.6) 30 (23.6) 31 (234) 0.96 (0.37–2.48)    
 Unemployed 4 (30.8) 3 (23.1) 3 (23.1) 3 (23.1) 0.82 (0.21–3.12)    
HIV infection & ART use, No. (%)a       0.07  
 HIV- 11 (34.4) 10 (31.3) 6 (18.8) 5 (15.6) 1.00 (REF)    
 HIV+/ART- 6 (20.7) 11 (37.9) 8 (27.6) 4 (13.8) 1.41 (0.58–3.40)    
 HIV+/ART+ 11 (22.5) 9 (18.4) 12 (24.5) 17 (34.7) 2.57 (1.13–5.88)    
Main symptom, No. (%)      1.07 (0.94–1.21) 0.32   
 Lump 24 (23.8) 24 (23.8) 29 (28.7) 24 (23.8)     
 Pain 7 (41.2) 5 (29.4) 2 (11.8) 3 (17.7)     
 Redness 4 (28.6) 4 (28.6) 2 (14.3) 4 (28.6)     
 Others 3 (11.5) 8 (30.8) 7 (26.9) 8 (308)     
  1. a There were 48 participants with missing HIV/ART data