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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of 158 OSSN patients presenting directly or indirectly to study centres

From: Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya

Demographic or clinical feature Direct presenters N = 88 Indirect presenters N = 70 p-valuea
n (%) n (%)  
Age in years, mean (SD), y 42.5 (12.0) 41.1 (12.0) 0.47c
Sex, No. (%)      0.11
 Male 36 (40.9) 20 (28.6)  
 Female 52 (59.1) 50 (71.4)  
Marital status, No. (%)      0.21
 Single 16 (18.2) 9 (12.9)  
 Married 55 (62.5) 49 (70.0)  
 Divorced or Separated 3 (3.4) 6 (8.6)  
 Widowed 14 (15.9) 6 (8.6)  
Highest education level, No. (%)      0.25
 Completed secondary or higher 33 (37.5) 34 (48.6)  
 Completed primary or some secondary 33 (37.5) 25 (35.7)  
 None or some primary 22 (25.0) 11 (15.7)  
Location of primary occupation, No. (%)      0.66
 Indoor 29 (33.0) 26 (37.1)  
 Outdoor 57 (64.8) 44 (62.9)  
 Missing data 2 (2.2) 0 0  
Employment      0.23
 Unemployed/no regular income 5 (5.7) 8 (11.4)  
 Low to middle income 69 (78.4) 58 (82.9)  
 High income 10 (11.4) 4 (5.7)  
 Missing data 4 (4.6) 0 0  
HIV infection/ART use, No. (%)      0.42
 HIV- 15 (25.0) 17 (34.0)  
 HIV+/ART- 15 (25.0) 14 (28.0)  
 HIV+/ART+ 30 (50.0) 19 (380)  
CD4 count in cells/mm3, median(IQR) 344 (148–802) 219 (120–670) 0.42d
HIV-associated immunodeficiency by CD4 count in cells/mm3, No. (%)      0.28
 None or not significant (≥500) 15 (37.5) 14 (34.2)  
 Mild (350–499) 5 (12.5) 3 (7.3)  
 Advanced (200–349) 9 (22.5) 5 (12.2)  
 Severe (<200) 11 (27.5) 19 (46.3)  
Main symptom, No. (%)      0.03
 Lump 53 (60.2) 48 (68.6)  
 Pain 15 (17.1) 2 (2.9)  
 Redness 6 (6.8) 8 (11.4)  
 Others 14 (15.9) 12 (17.1)  
Tumour diameter in mm, median(IQR) 6.0 (4.3–8.5) 6.0 (4.2–10.0) 0.52d
Histopathology, No. (%)      0.87
 CIN I (mild dysplasia) 5 (5.7) 4 (5.7)  
 CIN II (moderate dysplasia) 13 (14.8) 9 (12.9)  
 CIN III (severe dysplasia) 19 (21.6) 13 (18.6)  
 Carcinoma-in-situ 0 0 1 (1.4)  
 SCC – poorly differentiated 1 (1.4) 1 (1.4)  
 SCC – moderately differentiated 45 (51.1) 35 (50.0)  
 SCC – well differentiated 5 (5.7) 7 (10.0)  
Study Centre, No. (%)      <0.001
 Kikuyu Eye Unit 42 (47.7) 55 (78.6)  
 Kenyatta National Hospital 4 (4.6) 9 (12.9)  
 Sabatia Eye Hospital 25 (28.4) 3 (4.3)  
 Kitale District Hospital 17 (19.3) 3 (4.3)  
Distance from home to study centre or to 1st health facility in km, median(IQR)b 30 (20–89) 20 (5–56) 0.003 d
Cost of care in KSh, median (IQR) 3800 (3800–4800) 3880 (3800–4100) 0.01d
  1. Abbreviations: ART – antiretroviral therapy; CIN – conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia; SCC- squamous cell carcinoma; KSh – Kenyan shillings
  2. atesting whether the distribution of each demographic feature is the same in direct and indirect presenters
  3. b1 patient had missing data on distance, 48 missing data on HIV and 77 on CD4 count
  4. ct-test with unequal variances
  5. dMann-Whitney U-test